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A Table Containing the General Heads of Natural Magick

"Preface To The Reader"


A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

(note:  herbs/plants ref. w/"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- where possible.)

or   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)

Baccus / Bacchus    

Bacchus - The god of wine, son of Jupiter and Semele.

"...Diodorus writes, that the vine at first was but one, and that was wild, but now by the help of Bacchus alone, from the quality of the ground, the nature of the climate, and the art of planting, it is varied into many kinds, that it were madness to number them up, and not worth our time..."

"...Set your head below that point, and you shall behold a huge face like  a monstrous Baccus, and your finger as great as your arm..."

Bactrian Camel \  Baetrian Camel   

Camel - A large ruminant used in Asia and Africa for carrying burdens and for riding. The camel is remarkable for its ability to go a long time without drinking. Its hoofs are small, and situated at the extremities of the toes, and the weight of the animal rests on the callous. The dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) has one bunch on the back, while the Bactrian camel (C. Bactrianus) has two.

See:  Camel

".. Didymus, in his works called Geoponica, reports, that in certain mountains in India, Boars and Camels feed together, and so fall to copulation, and gender a Camel. And this Camel so gendered, has a double rifting, or two bunches upon his back. ..."

"...And this Camel so gendered, has a double rifting, or two bunches upon his back. But as the Mule which is generated of a Horse and an Ass, is in many qualities like the sire, so the Camel which is begotten of a Boars, is strong and full of stiff bristles like a Boar, and is not so soon down in the mud as other Camels are, but helps himself out lustily by his own force, and will carry twice so great a burden as others. But the reason of their name, why they are called Baetrian camel, is this, because the first that ever was so generated, was bred in the country of Baetria.   ..." 


Bait - Any substance, esp. food, used in catching fish, or other animals, by alluring them to a hook, snare, inclosure, or net.

"...Moreover, if men fasten to the Hook the Bait that is made of a salted Mousefish, and move this gently in the sea, the Sargus will come to it exceedingly, and gather about the Hook for the love of it, and are easily caught by their greediness after the meat..."

"... Ticinus, a river in Italy, produces a Fish called Thymalus, that is not taken with the dainty Baits that other Fish are, but only with the Gnat, an enemy to man, and she delights in no other Bait..."


Balance - . An apparatus for weighing. &hand; In its simplest form, a balance consists of a beam or lever supported exactly in the middle, having two scales or basins of equal weight suspended from its extremities.  

"... Take a perfect Balance, and put in one Scale of any metal. .."


 "...if you will curb soft and loose breasts...as are unripe Services, Sloes, Acacia, Pomegranate Pills, Balanstia, unripe Pine nuts, wild Pears, and Plantain,  if they all boil in Vinegar, and be laid to the breasts, or some of them..."

"...Or thus may you restrain that part of common Whores, with Galls, Gums, whites of Eggs, Dragon's blood, Acacia, Plantain, Hypocistis, Balanstia, Mastick, Cypress nuts, Grape skins, Acorn cups.  Or in that hollow part where the Glans breaks forth, and gaping, shows the Nucleus, with Mastick and Terra Lemnia..."


"...And it will not only degenerate into Betony, but into Ballamint also.  Likewise the boughs of the shrub Casia, as Galen reports, will degenerate into Cinnamon..."


Ballast - Any heavy substance, as stone, iron, etc., put into the hold to sink a vessel in the water to such a depth as to prevent capsizing.

"...We made trial also of some kinds of earth that had been far fetched, such as they had used for the Ballast of their ships, and we found such Herbs generated thereof, as we knew not what they were..."


Balsamus, Balsamum, Balm

Balm of Gilead, a small evergreen African and Asiatic tree of the terebinthine family (Balsamodendron Gileadense). Its leaves yield, when bruised, a strong aromatic scent; and from this tree is obtained the balm of Gilead of the shops, or balsam of Mecca. This has a yellowish or greenish colour, a warm, bitterish, aromatic taste, and a fragrant smell. It is valued as an unguent and cosmetic by the Turks.

"...Palladius records out of the same author, that if you steep Artichoke seeds for three days together in the oil of Bays, or Spikenard, or Balm gum, or the juice of Roses, or of Mastick..."

"...When you go to bed, to eat Balm, and you cannot desire more pleasant sights then will appear to you, fields, gardens, trees, flowers, meadows, and all the ground a pleasant green, and covered with shady bowers.  Wheresoever you cast your eyes, the whole world will appear pleasant and green.  Bugloss will do the same..."

Balneo Mariae  / Balneo                      

"...Take Saxifrage, Maidenhair, Pellitory of the wall, Parsley, Pimpernel and Ceterach.  Distill them in Balneo Mariae, and let the patient drink of it every other day.  For it corrodes and eats away the Stone, though never so great..."

"...And setting the vessel under it, you shall have the mositure of it drop forth, and the Calx will resolve into water.  Put this into a glass Vial, and let the water evaporate in Balneo..."


"...Draw of the water by Balneum, and the Essence must then be expressed out in a press.  Ferment it in Dung for five days, and it will yield you the scent, color and virtues of the Herbs in perfection..."

Balsam  /  Balsame                 

The balsams are aromatic resinous substances, flowing spontaneously or by incision from certain plants. A great variety of substances pass under this name, but the term is now usually restricted to resins which, in addition to a volatile oil, contain benzoic and cinnamic acid. Among the true balsams are the Balm of Gilead, and the balsams of copaiba, Peru, and Tolu

"...If you add Musk, Amber and Civit to the aforesaid skins, they will smell much more sweet and gratefully.  Or take four parts of Western Balsam, one of Musk, as much of Amber, and rub it on your gloves with a sponge, and they will smell very sweet..."

"... Balsame of the East, is a present remedy against Poison by ointments, or the biting of a Serpent, says Aetius..."

"...The Balsame, as they call it, which is brought from the West Indies, is excellent against them.  For when I anointed their mouth and jaws with it, they died in half an hour..."

Banda Mediolanensis    

"...After this, take three pounds of copper, that which is commonly called Banda Mediolanensis..."


Bane - That which destroys life, esp. poison of a deadly quality.

"...And then we will prescribe the manner of gathering fruit, lest they might be Bruised with handling or falling, which if they should, it would be their Bane, and the beginning of their Putrefaction. .."

"...Nardum kills sheep.  Dioscorides.  Cattle and goats, if they drink the water where Rhododendron is steeped, will die.  Pliny and Ononymus, an author nameless.   Flea Bane kills Goats and Sheep.  So does Savin...."


Banker - A money changer.  One who conducts the business of banking; one who, individually, or as a member of a company, keeps an establishment for the deposit or loan of money, or for traffic in money, bills of exchange, etc.

"...Which speculation is useful not only for Bankers, but also for Smiths, when they desire to try metals in Fixing of Silver, or other operations, which I will attempt to declare plainly..."


Banning - A curse; an imprecation.

"...And he (Theophrastus) reports it likewise of Basil, that it will grow more plentifully and better, it it be sown with cursing and Banning..."

Banquet of the Wise Men    

"...Plutark in his Tract, which he calls the Banquet of the wise men, shows that a shepherd brought in the house of Periander,  A babe gendred of a man and a mare..."  

Baptista, Leo    

"...Leo Baptista says, if you place a glazed vessel full of Salt, and well stopt with lime, putting oil under that no water may penetrate into it, that it may hang in the middle of the waters of a Cistern..."


Barbel - A fish of the genus Cyprinus, of the order of abdominals. The mouth is toothless; the gill has three rays; the body is smooth and white. This fish is about three feet long, and weighs 18 pounds. It is a very coarse fish, living in deep still rivers and rooting like swine in the soft banks. Its dorsal fin is armed with a strong spine, sharply serrated, from which circumstance it probably received its name.

"...The eggs of the Barbel, or Spawn are not to be eaten in May, because they are dangerous..."

Barbery Tree   

A shrub of the genus Berberis, common along roadsides and in neglected fields. B. Vulgaris is the species best known; its oblong red berries are made into a preserve or sauce, and have been deemed efficacious in fluxes and fevers. The bark dyes a fine yellow, esp. The bark of the root. [Also spelt berberry

"...or I take it, that the Oxyacantha, or the Barbery tree, is nothing else but a bastard, or a wild Tuber..."


Bard -  A poet and a singer among the ancient Celts; one whose occupation was to compose and sing verses, in honor of the heroic achievements of princes and brave men. The bards used an instrument of music like a lyre or guitar, and not only praised the brave, but reproached the cowardly.

"...and those are called Magicians, whom the latines call Wise-men, ...The Celts in France call them Druids, Bards, and Semnothites; The Egyptians call them Priests; and the Cabalists call them Prophets..."

Bartholomew, Saint  

"...they answered he was a heretic, and that he had escaped from being cast headlong from a tower, upon Saint Bartholomew his day, which is the time appointed for the destruction of such wicked men...."


Barley - A species of valuable grain, used especially for making malt, from which are distilled liquors of extensive use, as beer, ale and porter. It is of the genus hordeum, consisting of several species. Those principally cultivated in England, are the common spring barley, the long eared barley, the winter or square barley, by some called big,and the sprat or battledore barley. This grain is used in medicine, as possessing emollient, diluent, and expectorant qualities.

"...Wherefore he took the purest and the cleanest Wheat and Barley that he could get, and having picked out all other seed whatsoever, sowed them in the ground..."

"...Tiberius has taught the way how do do it.  You must knead three pints of bruised or ground Barley, and put to it the froth of Nitre and a little Salt, and make it into loaves..."

Barley bread        

"...But to make them (Hair)  grow quickly, take Barley bread with Salt, and Bear's grease..."

 "...The crumbs of Barley bread burned with Salt sprinkled on, and Honey, will not only make the teeth white, but make the breath sweet..."


"...Then take Peach Kernels, with the skins picked off.  Seeds of Gourds, Melons, white Poppy, Barleymeal, of each one ounce and half..."

"... Bind Barleymeal Bran in a Linen cloth, and let it down into a pot full of water..."

Barley Straw   

 "...Then wash it with Lye made of Cabbage stalks, ashes, and Barley Straw..."

"...A Lye to dye the hair...Thus, put Barley Straw into an earthen pot with a great mouth, Feny-Graec. and wild Cumin, mingle between them, Quicklime and Tobacco, made into powder...


Barly-water - A decoction of barley, which is reputed soft and lubricating, and much used in medicine.

"...With us, women that have to do in the Sun, to defend their faces from the heat of it, that that may not be black, they defend it with the white of an Egg beaten with a little starch, and mingled.  And when the voyage is done, they wash off this covering with Barly-water..."

 "...Then make cakes of them with Barley Water, wherein Gum Traganth has been soaked.  You may use this for Soap when you wash your hands.  For they scour them, and make them white..."

Basil-Gentle / Basel                             

Basil - Royal

"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- "The greater ordinary Bazil riseth up usually with one upright Stalk diversly branching forth on all sides, with two Leaves at everyJoynt, which are somewhat broad and round, yet pointed, of a pale green colour, but fresh, a little snipt about the edges, and of a strong heady scent: The Flowers are smal and white standing at the tops of the Branches, with two smal Leavs at the Joynt, in som places green, in others brown, after which come black Seed. The Root perisheth at the approach of Winter, and therfore must be new sowen every year."

"...When this star rises, the Basil-gentle waxes whitherish, and corriander waxes dry, as Theophrastus writes..."

 "...Florentinus says, that Basel is an enemy to women, and that so such, that if it be put under the dish, and the woman knows not of it, she will never put her hand to the dish, before it is taken away..."

"...The seed of Withywind being planted near to Basil, as soon as it shoot up, will presently wind itself round about the stalks of the Basil, and by often winding about them, will wrap them all into one..."


See:  Cockatrice

In Greek and Roman mythology, the Basilisk, or Cockatrice, was a serpent with the head and wings of a cock and the tail of a dragon. Its glance killed whatever it encountered. A Cockatricewas often known as the offspring of a chicken Hen and a marauding Basilisk.

"...The Lamprey fights with serpents, and with her biting, kills the Basilisk, which is the most poisonous serpent that is..."

"...The Sea-Lamprey stayeth a ship, not principally with any one part, but with her whole body. And there be many like examples. On the other side, many things work by some of their parts, as the Cockatrice and the Basilisk, by their eyes..." 


Bastard - A natural" child; a child begotten and born out of wedlock; an illegitimate child; one born of an illicit union.

"...for I take it, that the Oxyacantha, or the Barbery Tree, is nothing else but a Bastard, or a wild Tuber. and therefore if a man follow that example of  Corellius, and Graft the Oxyacantha often into the branch or stock, it will be much bettered, and become the Tuber tree..."

"...Sometimes also, of a right and noble Vine is generated a Bastard Vine, and that so different in kind often, that is has nothing of the right garden Vine, but all nearly wild..."

Bastard Sicamore / Bastard Sycamore        

See:   Sycamore

"...There is an odoriferous water extracted out of the flowers of Azadaret, or Bastard Sycamore, very thin and full of favor..."

Bat's Bane   

See: Bane

"...Zoroastes in his Geoponics says they die by the fume of Ivy..."

Bay / Bay Tree                                

"...They are such as are very hot, as the Bay tree, the Buckthorn, the Holm, the Piel tree.  But Mnestor adds the Mulberry tree, and men conjecture so, because they will presently blunt the ax..."

"...Since Wine and Vinegar are wonderful good against the pestilence, or else of the Bay tree, whose leaves bruised and smelled to, will presently drive away pestilent contagion..."


The fruit of Myrica cerifera (wax myrtle); the shrub itself; called also candleberry tree. Bayberry tallow, a fragrant green wax obtained from the bayberry or wax myrtle; called also myrtle wax.

"...Also you may make Artichokes smell like Bays, if you take a Bayberry, and make a hole in it, and put therein your Artichoke seed, and so plant it..."

"... Palladius almost as Dioscorides , in January, boil many Bayberrys, that are ripe and full in hot water..."


"...In my time, there have been seen certain Cherries in Naples, which they called Bay-cherries, somewhat bitter, but yet pleasant withal..."


Bdellium - A gummy resinous juice, produced by a tree in the East Indies, of which we have no satisfactory account. It is brought from the E. Indies and from Arabia, in pieces of different sizes and figures, externally of a dark reddish brown, internally, clear and not unlike to glue. To the taste, it is slightly bitterish and pungent; its odor is agreeable. In the mouth, it becomes soft and sticks to the teeth; on a red hot iron, it readily catches flame and burns with a crackling noise. It is used as a perfume and a medicine, being a weak deobstruent.

"...Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, Savory, Elder, Sage leaves,... Spodium, Schaeinanthus, Bdellium, Mummy, Sagapenum..."

Bindeweed  / Bindweed    

Bindweed - All the Convolvulus family have purgative properties in a greater or less degree. Convolvulus Scammonia is used in homoeopathy. A tincture is made from the gum resin. The drugs known as Jalap and Scammony are produced from the Jalap Bindweed and the C. Scammonia.

 "...Then Distil the flowers of Bindeweed, Citrons, Oranges together..."


"...There may be made diverse kinds of sweet compounds, of which are made Beads, which some use to reckon their prayers by, and others to trim their cloths with.  Also Wash-Balls to cleanse and sweeten the hands..."


"...Add to the Wax, Bean-meal, excellent well beaten.  And this will burn candles without any excrement.  For it increses the weight and bigness, and the fraud is scarce discerned..."

"...Then wrap up the seeds in some small loose earth, which for this purpose you have before meddled with the ashes of burnt Bean straw..."


"...Columella.  Oxen will grow fat with Corn, Grass and Tares, ground Beans, and Beanstalks.  Also with Barly, whole or broken, and parted from the hulls..."


Bear - Any species of the genus Ursus, and of the closely allied genera. Bears are plantigrade Carnivora, but they live largely on fruit and insects. The European brown bear (U. arctos), the white polar bear (U. maritimus), the grizzly bear (U. horribilis), the American black bear, and its variety the cinnamon bear (U. Americanus), the Syrian bear (Ursus Syriacus), and the sloth bear, are among the notable species.

"...Bear eyes are often dimmed, and for that cause they desire honeycomb above all things, that the Bees stinging their mouths, may thereby draw forth, together with the blood, that dull and gross Humor..."

"...A Horse, that is a creature made obedient to man, has a capital hatred with a Bear, that is a beast hurtful to man..."


(Black) Hellebore (Helleborus Foetitus).

The Black Hellebore - once known as Melampode - is a perennial, low-growing plant, with dark, shining, smooth leaves and flower-stalks rising directly from the root, its pure white blossoms appearing in the depth of winter and thereby earning for it the favourite name of Christmas Rose. The generic name of this plant is derived from the Greek elein (to injure) and bora (food), and indicates its poisonous nature. The specific name refers to the darkcoloured rootstock.  (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)

"...The herb called Bears-foot, that which grows on the Hill Oeta and Parnasfus, is very excellent, but elsewhere, of small force..."


See Cimex

Bedbugs, family Cimicidae, order Hemiptera, are flat, broadly oval, wingless bugs about 0.6 cm (0.24 in) in length that feed by sucking blood from birds and mammals. The common bedbug that attacks humans is Cimex lectularius, which is often a pest in houses, hotels, military barracks, and other living quarters; it also attacks animals. This insect is usually nocturnal, hiding in cracks and crevices during the day. The adults may live several months and can survive long periods without food. Bedbugs inflict irritating bites; they are not known to cause disease.

"...The little worm Cimex is good against the biting of Asps, as Pliny shows by hens, who, if they eat that worm, are all day after, free from the hurt of Asps...."


Bee - An insect of the order Hymenoptera, and family Apidæ (the honeybees), or family Andrenidæ (the solitary bees.)

"...Aelianus writes, that Oxen are commodious many ways, among the rest, this is one excellent commodity, that being dead, there may be generated of them a very profitable kind of creatures, namely Bees..."

"...Nothing does more deform the visage then the stinging of Bees..."


Beech - A tree arranged by Linne under the genus fagus, with the chestnut. The beech grows to a large size, with branches forming a beautiful head, with thick foliage. The bark is smooth and of a silvery cast. The mast or nuts are the food of swine, and of certain wild animals, and yield a good oil for lamps. When eaten by man, they are said to occasion giddiness and headache.

"...Albertus reports, (if the thing be as true as it is strange, but let the truth thereof lie upon his credit) he reports, I say, that Oak or Beech boughs being Grafted  into the Tree Myrica, is quite changed into it, and so into the tree called Tremisca, which is a baser kind of wood..."

"...If you put them  (Chestnuts) in wicker baskets, and plaster up the baskets round about.  But the rods which the baskets be made of must be Beech rods..."


Beer - A spirituous liquor made from any farinaceous grain; but generally from barley, which is first malted and ground, and its fermentable substance extracted by hot water. This extract or infusion is evaporated by boiling in caldrons, and hops or some other plant of an agreeable bitterness added. The liquor is then suffered to ferment in vats. Beer is of different degrees of strength, and is denominated small beer, ale, porter, brown stout, &c.,according to its strength, or other peculiar qualities.

"...Dioscorides teaches to make Beer of Barley, also a drink is made of Barley called Curmi, they use that drink often for Wine..."

"...whence Pliny, of Corn drink is made.  Beer in Egypt, called Zythum, in Spain , Caelia and Ceria, Beer in France and other provinces...."


"...Pliny teaches that Spelt will grow white by a kind of chalk, thus.  Let this Spelt be of Beer-corn, which he called a seed..." 


Beet - A plant of the genus Beta. The species cultivated in gardens are the cicla and vulgaris,or white and red beet. There are many varieties; some with long taper roots, and others with flat roots, like turnips.

"...As Sotion shows.  To make a Beet grow in bigness, says he, you must cover the roots over with some fresh Ox Dung, and divide the leaves or buds..."

"...He puts Beet roots bruised into Wine, it will be Vinegar when three hours are over.  But if he would restore it again as it was, he puts in Cabbage roots..."


Beetle - A heavy mallet or wooden hammer,used to drive wedges, beat pavements, &c.; called also a stamper, or rammer.

"...Theophrastus shows us how to do it.  We must take the young slips or branches of divers kinds, and bruise them with a Beetle, so that they may stick and hang together, and then bind them up very hard each to other, and set them in the ground..."

"...The art of Kembing, and making of it, out of fifty pounds of Flax bundles, to make fifteen pounds of Flax.  then again it is polished in Thread, it is often beat upon a hard stone with water, and when it is woven it is bruised again with Beetles..."


See:  Deadly Nightshade, Fair Lady, Belladonna, Hypnoticon, Solanum Manicon, Stramonium

"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"Common Nightshade hath an upright, round, green, hollow stalk, about a Foot or half a yard high, bushing forth into many Branches, whereon grow many green Leavs, somwhat broad and pointed at the ends, soft and full of Juyce, somwhat like unto Bazil, but larger, and a little unevenly dented about the edges at the tops of the Stalks and Branches, come forth three or four or more white Flowers made of five smal pointed Leavs apiece, standing on a Stalk together, one above another with yellow pointels in the middle, composed of four or five yellow threds set together which aftewards turn into so many pendulous green Berries of the bigness of smal Pease, full of green Juyce, and smal whitish round flat Seed lying within it. The Root is white and a little woody when it hath given Flower and Fruit with many smal Fibres at it; The whol Plant is of a waterish insipide tast, but the Juyce within the Berries is somwhat viscuous, and of a cooling and binding quality."

"...We may make the same of Nightshade, which is also called, Hypnoticon, from the effect of it.  A drachm of the rind, drank in wine, causes sleep, but gently and kindly.  This later age, seems to have lost the knowledge of Solanum Manicon..." 

"... Fuschius his Stramonium, and the herb commonly called Belladonna whose qualities are wonderfully Dormitive..."


Bellows - An instrument, utensil or machine for blowing fire, either in private dwellings or in forges, furnaces and shops. It is so formed as by being dilated and contracted, to inhale air by a lateral orifice which is opened and closed with a valve, and to propel it through a tube upon the fire.

"...Then put them into a Fornace of reverberation, the space of six hours, increasing the fire by degrees, that at last they may become red hot, but not melt, therefore use no Bellows..."

"...For it will come so forcibly, that it will kindle a fire, and serve for Bellows for Brass and Iron melting furnaces..."


Ben - A purgative fruit or nut, the largest of which resembles a filbert, yielding an oil used in pharmacy.

See:  Benjamin, Oil of Ben , Glans Unguentaria, Morobolane

"...Ben, called in latin, Glans Unguentaria, is used in precious ointments instead of oil.  Pliny called it Morobolane.  So also Martial..."


See:   Ben, Oil of Benjamin

"...Is to be made by putting Benjamin into a glass retort, and fitting it to the furnace.  Then increase the fire without any fear of combustion, and you will obtain a fragent oil, to be used in precious ointments.  So Oil of Storax, Calamite, and Labdanum, and other Gums..."

"...If you want salt for your meats, the seed of Sumach strewed in with Benjamin, will season anything.  Pliny..."


"... But Beritius uses this means to make them stay long on their tree.  He takes the blossoms of the tree when they begin to wither, and wraps in them every pomegranate by itself, and then binds them about with bonds..."

"...But Beritius and Diophanes write, that the Mulberry tree itself, which makes all other Apple fruit to become red, may be caused to bring forth white Mulberries..."

Berotinum / Berotinus   

"...Then make red hot a plate of iron, and lay part of the coat of mail, or all of it upon the same.  When it shows an ash color, workmen call it Berotinum.."

"...Then make the plate of iron hot again, and lay on the hooks a second time, and when an ash color, or that they commonly call Berotinus, appears, plunge them into the water again, that they may be strong..."


The Wood Betony (S. Betonica according to present-day nomenclature, though nemed Betonica officinalis, by Linnaeus) was held in high repute not only in the Middle Ages, but also by the Greeks who extolled its qualities. An old Italian proverb, ' Sell your coat and buy Betony, ' and 'He has as many virtues as Betony,' a saying of the Spaniards, show what value was placed on its remedial properties. Antonius Musa, chief physician to the Emperor Augustus, wrote a long treatise, showing it was a certain cure for no less than fortyseven diseases. (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)

"... Martial writes, that, "Basil-royal degenerates into wild Betony," if it be laid open to the sun's hotest and greatest force..."

 "... Theophrastus counsels you to water them  (Betony) with Salt Liquor, and so they will be better..."

Bewitch / Bewitched         

"...Isigonus and Memphodorus say, there are some families in Africa, that Bewitch with their tongue the very woods.  Which if they do but admire somewhat earnestly, or if they praise fair trees, growing corn, lusty children, good horses, or fat sheep, they presently wither, and die of a sudden, from no other cause or harm..."

"...The same Isigonus says, there are among Lriballians and Illyrians, certain men, who have two pupils in each eye, and do Bewitch most deadly with them..."

Bezoar Stone    

A hard mass of entangled material sometimes found in the stomachs and intestines of animals and man as a hairball (trichobezoar), vegetable-fibre ball (phytobezoar) or a combination.

"...The Bezoar Stone, brought from the West Indies, being hung about the neck nigh to the heart, or four grains of it in powder, taken in Wine, is good against the Plague, and the infection of all pestilential fevers..."


 "...Wine of Corn...Now the same drink is made in the northern climates of Corn, and they call it Biera, but they put Hops to it, for it cannot