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(note:  herbs/plants ref. w/"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- where possible.)

or   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)

Zaffre / Zaphara   


"...Set the Zaphara upon upon a potters tile, into the cell, and shut the door.  Let it be red hot, and after six hours take it out and put it into water, so will it cleave into pieces.  Let it be dryed, stamped, and so finely seirced, that it may scarce be felt..."

"...To a pound of Glass, you must add a Drachm of Manganess, for so it will be of the color of a Lion.  Then add a Drachm of Zaphara, and the mixture witll turn black.  Make often trial, if it be of a dark purple or violet color..."


"...were excellent Magicians: as, amongst the Persians, Zoroastres the son of Orimafius, whom we spoke of before, amongst the Romans, Numa Pompilius; Thespion, amongst the Gymnosophists; Zamolxis, amongst the Thracians: Abbarais, amongst the Hyperboreans; Hermes, amongst the Egyptians and Budda among the Babylonians. Besides these, Apuleius reckons up Carinondas, Damigeron, Hifmoses, Apollonius, and Dardanus, who all followed Zoroastres and Osthanes. .."


"... Gold called Zechini in the air weights 17 carats, under water 16 Carats.  Turkish Ducat Gold weighs in the air 34, under water 32..."


A medicinal substance obtained in the East Indies, having a fragrant smell, and a warm, bitter, aromatic taste. It is used in medicine as a stimulant. It is the rhizome of different species of Curcuma, esp. C. Zedoaria, and comes in short, firm pieces, externally of a wrinkled gray, ash-coloured appearance, but within of a brownish red colour. There are two kinds, round zedoary, and long zedoary

"...In the month of July, take three ounces of the seed, stamp it gently, and steep it in two glasses of the best white Wine, with Gentian, Tormentil, white Dittany, Zedoary, and Carline gathered in August..."

"...Take Oil of Ben, or of Almonds, mix Musk, Amber, Cinnamon, and Zedoary, well beaten in it.  Put it in a glass bottle, and set it in the Sun, or in Balneo, ten days.  Then strain from it the Dregs, and the Essence will be imbibed into the Oil..."


Zeno of Citium

See Zeno Citticus


"... The roots of Artichokes smeared on, does not only cure the ill scent of armpits, but of the whole body also.  But Zenocrates promises by experiment, that the faultiness of the armpits will pass forth by Urine..."


"...The Grecian women painted themselves with wood, as Zenophon writes..."


"...The ancients thought it was done by some superstitions worship, and that there was a chain of iron by the River Euphrates, that was called Zeugma, wherein Alexander the Great had there bound the bridge. .."


See Jujube

Ziziphus, is any of several deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, or temperate regions. They belong to the family Rhamnaceae. The Chinese jujube, Z. jujuba, is a small, deciduous tree that has been cultivated for at least 4,000 years in China. It bears a small, dark fruit with white flesh that, eaten fresh, dried, or candied, is one of China's chief fruits. The tree is also grown in the Mediterranean area and in parts of the United States, for example, in California and Texas, as well as in Mexico, sometimes as an ornamental. The pit or stone is sometimes eaten as a nut. The Indian jujube, Z. mauritiana, a small, thorny evergreen, differs from the Chinese jujube in that the underside of the leaf is covered with dense hairs. The plant is widespread in tropical Africa and Asia, particularly the drier regions. The fruits, rich in vitamin C and eaten fresh or dried, are also made into a drink.

"...So also the fruit called, Ziziphum may be preserved if it be gathered with the boughs that it grows upon, and folded or wrapt up in his own leaves, and so hung upon upon the beams of a house.."

"...Preserve the fruit called Ziziphum..."


"...The winding course of the Sun, says he(Ptolomy), in the oblique circle of the Zodiac, causes the generation and corruption of all transitory things, and by his going to and fro, distinguishes times and seasons...


"...This does Plato seem to signify in his Aleibiades, where he said, That the Magick of Zoraflres, was nothing else, in his opinion, but the knowledge and study of Divine things, wherewith the Kings Sons of Persia..."


"...Zonaras the Greek, writes in the third Tome of histories, that Anastasius moved sedition against Vitalianus a Thracian, and he got those of Mysia, and the Scythians to stand with him..."


During the 7th and 6th centuries BC the ancient polytheistic religion of the Iranians was reformed and given new dimensions by the prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathusthra). Zoroaster's life dates have been traditionally given as c.628-551 BC, but many scholars argue for earlier dates. Linguistic evidence suggests that he was born in northeastern Iran, but the prophet's message was to spread throughout the Persian Empire. Adopted as the faith of the Persian kings, Zoroastrianism became the official religion of the Achaemenid empire and flourished under its successors, the Parthian and Sassanian empires. Its theology and cosmology may have influenced the development of Greek, later Jewish, Christian, and Muslim thought. The Muslim conquest of the 7th century AD marked the beginning of a steady decline of Zoroastrianism . Persecution resulted in the migration (about the 10th century) of the majority of Zoroastrians to India, where the Parsis of Bombay are their modern descendants.

 "...A wild Bull being tied to a Fig tree, becomes tame and gentle, as Zoroaster says, who compiled a book called Geoponica, out of the choice writings of the Ancients..."

"... Zoroaster in his Geoponics says, that sheep killed by wolves, and bitten, their flesh will be more tender, and so the sweeter...."


 "...Zoroastes in his Geoponics says they die by the fume of Ivy...."


"...Pliny, says, that it is received for certainty among most authors, that magick was begun in Persia by Zoroastres the son of Orimafius; or, as more curious writers hold, by another Zoroastres, surnamed Proconnefius, who lived a little before..."


During the 7th and 6th centuries BC the ancient polytheistic religion of the Iranians was reformed and given new dimensions by the prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathusthra).

The rituals of Zoroastrianism revolve around devotion to the good and the battle against the forces of evil. Fire plays a major role, being seen as the manifestation of the truth of Ahura Mazda, as preached by Zoroaster . Also important is the ritual drink, haoma, which is related to the Vedic soma.


"...Beer in Egypt, called Zythum, in Spain , Caelia and Ceria, Beer in France and other provinces..."


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