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(note:  herbs/plants ref. w/"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- where possible.)

or   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)


(See Cuckow-pint, Ilium)

The plant has a round flattened perennial rhizome, the upper part tunicated as in the onion, the lower and larger portion tuberous and fleshy, with numerous long white radicles in a circle from its upper edge, the under-side covered with a dark, loose, wrinkled epidermis. Spathe ovate, acuminate, convoluted into a tube at the bottom, flattened and bent at top like a hood, varying in colour internally, supported by an erect scape inverted at base by petioles and their acute sheaths. Spadix club-shaped, shorter than spathe, rounded at end, contracted at base, surrounded by stamens or ovaries; the upper portions of the spadix withers together with the spathe, whilst the ovaries grow into a large compact bunch of shining scarlet berries. Leaves, one or two standing on long sheathing foot-stalks, ternate. Leaflets oval, mostly entire, acuminate,smooth, paler on under-side, becoming glaucous with growth, the two lateral ones rhomboidal.   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)

"...Aristotle says, that Boars feed upon the herb Arum, or Wakerobin, to keep them soluble..."

"...So the Herb Arisaron in Egypt, and Wakerobin, and Garlic, bear seeds like a Snake's head, and so Bugloss and Orchanet bear seeds like a Viper's head, and these are good to heal their venomous bitings..."


"...Make a solid pillar in a glass furnace, so great as a Walnut, and let it be made round only by the fire, as the manner is, as glass makers used to do..."

"...Your workmen must be diligent to perform their duty, then let the Pastils, being broken into pieces about the bigness of a Walnut, be put in Crucibles, and set in the holes of the the Fornace built for that purpose, with a pair of iron tongs to every pot..."


"...Theophrastus, speaking of those herbs that resemble the Scorpion and Polypus, says, that some herbs have a peculiar kind of form, as the root of the herb Scorpius, called by some Walwort, the root of Polypody..."


"...Rub off the Wan color of your cheeks..."


"...This is called by some a Mastiff, by others a Warrior, or a Hircan-Dog. Aristotle calls them Indian-dogs, and says, they are generated of a Dog and a Tygre..."


"...How Warts may be taken away..."

"...Warts use to possess the forehead, nose, hands, and other open places.  So does hard flesh, and other foulness of the skin.  Women cannot endure them..."


"...The Ancients used the greater Spurge, whose juice, anointed on with Salt, takes them  (Warts) away.  And therefore they called it Warts-Herb..."


"...There may be made diverse kinds of sweet compounds, of which are made Beads, which some use to reckon their prayers by, and others to trim their cloths with.  Also Wash-Balls to cleanse and sweeten the hands..."


 "...Many eat Spiders and wild Olives and care not for the biting of Serpents, nor suffer any Wasting or Consumption, if they be of such a nature, that their looks or breath will not only blast men..."


"... Pliny and Virgil say, that Wasps and Hornets both, are generated of the flesh of dead Horses..."

"...Because the stinging of Bees, Wasps, Hornets, do so change the face, making the nose, mouth and other parts to stand awry, and to be full of swellings and depressions..."


"...It remains, that we speak of Perfumes.  For they are very necessary for the scenting of skin, cloths, and Powders.  And to enrich nobemen's chambers, with sweet odors in winter.  They are make either of Waters or Powders..."

Water Chestnuts    

"...Dioscorides says, there is a kind of Thistle commonly found in the waters, that only in rivers brings forth a certain seed as big as a Chestnut, with three points, membranous, full of with pith, that tastes like Chestnuts.  They call them Water Chestnuts vulgarly, and the inhabitants use them in meats, as they do Chestnuts..."


"...The ancients had Hour-Dials made by water.  And Water-Dials were usual and famous.  Heron of Alexandria wrote a book of them, but they are lost...."

Water of Depart   

"...Use Water of Depart, that seperates Gold from Silver, made of Saltpeter and Vitriol, and especially if it have first corroded any Silver.  This will last twenty days, until the skin be changed..."

Water of Honey    

"...We can also make the hair grow suddenly, with Water of Honey, and the fat of an Eel and Horse, as I said..."

Water of Styx   

"...In Nonacris, a country of Arcady, there flow very cold waters out of a stone, which are called the Water of Styx, which break to pieces all vessels of Silver and Brass, and nothing can hold them but a mules foot, wherein it was brought from Antipater, into the country where