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(note:  herbs/plants ref. w/"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- where possible.)

or   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)


See:  Hyacinth

"To make a Jacinth...Give the Cock grains of the Bloody Stone, instead of Wheat, and he will easily lay hold of them..."

"How to make a Jacinth beautiful enough, and not much unlike a true one.  Put Lead into a hard earthen pot and set it on the fire in a Glass makers Fornace, there let it remain for some days till the Lead be vitrified, and it will be of the color of a Jacinth..."


Jackdaw - A fowl of the genus Corvus,thievish and mischievous to the farmer.

"...A Jackdaw loves herself..."

 "...They write also, that the Jackdaw hiding certain seeds in some secret chinks or holes, did give occasion of this invention..."


Jakes - An outhouse, privy.

"...To adulterate Civet...Hang it in a Jakes among stinks.  For by striving against those ill favors, it excites its own virtue, revives, and recovers its lost sent..."


Jacob - A Hebrew patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews), who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven (Gen. xxviii. 12); -- also called Israel.

"...Jacob was well aquinted with this force of imagination, as the scriptures witness..."


"...To make Smalt of a paler yellow instead of Jalloline, add Jaletto, and you will have your desire..."


 "...You may put to every pound of Crystal a little Crocus Martis, and tree ounces of Jalloline, as they call it, which engravers use..."

"...To make Smalt of a paler yellow instead of Jalloline, add Jaletto, and you will have your desire..."


"...Hence, Jamblicus following the doctrine of the Egyptians, says, that every good thing comes certainly from the power of the sun, and if we receive any good from any thing else, yet the sun must perfect and finish it..."


Jasmine - A shrubby plant of the genus Jasminum, bearing flowers of a peculiarly fragrant odor.

"...So shall you have a Rose or a Jasmine thereby growing, of a lovely yellowish color..."

"...Take two pounds of Rose water, of Lavender half one, of cretan wine thirteen drachms, of the flowers of Gilliflowers, Roses, Rosemary, Jasmine, the leaves of Marjoram, wild Betony, Savory, Fennel, and Basil Gentle, half a pound.  An ounce of lemon peel, a drachm of cinnamon, Benjamin, Storax and Nutmegs..."


"...When one complained before the King of the Indians, that he had sons born to him, but when once they began to drink a little wine, they all died.  Jarchus answered him thus.  It is better for them that they died, for had they lived, they would have all run mad, because they were begot of seed that was too cold..."


Jaundice - A morbid condition, characterized by yellowness of the eyes, skin, and urine, whiteness of the fæces, constipation, uneasiness in the region of the stomach, loss of appetite, and general languor and lassitude. It is caused usually by obstruction of the biliary passages and consequent damming up, in the liver, of the bile, which is then absorbed into the blood.

"...When the glass is melted with heat in the furnace, with any little color it will be tainted.  If you cast in yellow, the face of him that looks into it, will seem to have the Yellow Jaundices.  If black, he will appear wan and deformed.  If you add much of it, like to a Blackmoore..."

Jerome, Saint    

Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus), c.347-420, was a Father of the Church and Doctor of the Church, whose great work was the translation of the Bible into Latin, the edition known as the Vulgate. He was born at Stridon on the borders of Dalmatia and Pannonia of a well-to-do Christian family. His parents sent him to Rome to further his intellectual interests, and there he acquired a knowledge of classical literature and was baptized at the age of 19. Shortly thereafter he journeyed to Trier in Gaul and to Aquileia in Italy, where he began to cultivate his theological interests in company with others who, like himself, were ascetically inclined.

"... St. Jerome writing to Paulinus, says, that Apollonius Tyaneus was a Magician , as the people thought; or a Philosopher, as the Pythagoreans esteemed him..."


Jet - A variety of lignite, of a very compact texture and velvet black color, susceptible of a good polish, and often wrought into mourning jewelry, toys, buttons, etc. Formerly called also black amber.

"...Dioscorides says, that the Thracian Stone is bred in a certain river of Scythia, the name of it is Pontus.  It has the force of Jet, they say it is inflamed by water, and quenched with oil, like as Bitumen..."

"...As Bitumen, it draws fire to it and burns.  Pissaphaltum is harder then Bitumen.  Both Amber and Jet are of this sort, but these burn more gently, and not so much in the waters..."


Jeweler - One who makes, or deals in, jewels, precious stones, and similar ornaments.

"... Let the Loadstone be turned round, by the wheel of the Jewelers, and polished..."

"...For the Diamond is not so hard as men say it is.  For it will yield to steel, and to a moderate fire.  Nor does it grow soft in Goat blood, or Camel blood, or Asses blood.  And our Jewelers count all these relations false and ridiculous..."

John the Baptist    

John, the forerunner of Christ.

"...Damascen reports, that a certain young woman brought forth a child that was all hairy, and searching out the reason thereof, he found the hairy image of John the Baptist  in her chamber, which she was wont to look upon..."


"...It was the crafty counsel of Josippus, that the messengers should be clad with skins, and so they past the enemie's guards, and were not regarded. .."

Jovius, Paulus    

Jovius, Paulus - Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552.

"...They cover the oven with hot Dung, and if need be they make a fire round about it.  So are the Eggs hatched at their due times.  Paulus Jovius in his Book of Histories..."


King of Africa

"... Florentinus the Grecian says, that Jubas King of Africa, taught how to make bees in a wooden Ark.."


Juggler - One who practices or exhibits tricks by sleight of hand; one skilled in legerdemain; a conjurer.

"...Now will I open cheats and impostors, whereby Jugglers and impostors, who fain themselves to be Conjurers, and thereby delude fools, knaves, and simple women..."

Jujube /  Jujubee    

Jujube, Ziziphus, is any of several deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, or temperate regions. They belong to the family Rhamnaceae. The Chinese jujube, Z. jujuba, is a small, deciduous tree that has been cultivated for at least 4,000 years in China. It bears a small, dark fruit with white flesh that, eaten fresh, dried, or candied, is one of China's chief fruits. The tree is also grown in the Mediterranean area and in parts of the United States, for example, in California and Texas, as well as in Mexico, sometimes as an ornamental. The pit or stone is sometimes eaten as a nut. The Indian jujube, Z. mauritiana, a small, thorny evergreen, differs from the Chinese jujube in that the underside of the leaf is covered with dense hairs. The plant is widespread in tropical Africa and Asia, particularly the drier regions. The fruits, rich in vitamin C and eaten fresh or dried, are also made into a drink.

See  Ziziphus

"...May Jujubees be kept in their own leaves..."


"...Because the Julides are a bait almost for all fish, or your groundlings or little Sea-squils, therefore they are part of all baits.  Or, take the Liver of the Tuny Fish, four drachms, Sea-squils, eight drachms, Seasame seed, four drachms, beans ground, eight drachms, of raw Dog fish, two drachms.  Pound all these, and make them up with new wine distilled into balls, for good baits..."


"...I speak of those crabs bred in fresh waters.  For at Venice I have eaten them that breed naturally tender in salt waters, they call them commonly Mollecas.  But they are not so sweet, as they are made at Rome, and they ask a Julius apiece..."


"...Which is a fourth sort of mule, found in Gratianopolis, and called by a French name, Jumar..."

Junkets / Juncates     

Junket - A cheese cake; a sweetmeat; any delicate food.

"...She (wife of Polycretes) desired Diogentus, general of the Erythrei, that she might send some Junkets to her brothers..."

"...Moreover, in places where they grow among us, the inhabitants when provision is dear, make bread of them, as at Ferrara they do of chestnuts and the Brutii roast them in the embers and eat them for Juncates..."