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The Twentieth Book of Natural Magick

"The Chaos"

("Wherein the Experiments are set down without any Classical Order.")

"The Proeme"

Chapter I - "How Sea-Water may be made potable."

Chapter II - "How to make water of Air."

Chapter III - "How one may so alter his face that not so much as his friends shall know him."

Chapter IV - "That stones may move alone."

Chapter V - "How an Instrument may be made, that we may hear by it a great way."

Chapter VI - "How by some impostures we may augment weight."

Chapter VII - "Of the Harp and many wonderful properties thereof."

Chapter VIII - "To discover Frauds whereby impostors working by natural means, pretend that they do them by conjuration."

Chapter IX - "Of some experiments of a Lamp."

Chapter X - "Of some mechanical Experiments."

The Proeme

I determined at the beginning of my book to write experiments, that are contained in all Natural Sciences, but by my business that called me off, my mind was hindered, so that I could not accomplish what I had intended.  Since therefore I could not do what I would, I must be willing to do what I can.  Therefore I shut up in this book, those experiments that could be included in no classes, which were so diverse and various, that they could not make up a Science or a book.  And thereupon I have here heaped them altogether confusedly as what I had over passed.  And if God please, I will another time give you a more perfect book.  Now you must rest content with these.

Chapter I

"How Sea-water may be made potable."

T is no small commodity to mankind, if Sea-water may be made potable.  In long voyages, as to the Indies it is of great concernment.  For while at sea men, by reason of tempests are forced to stay longer at sea then they would, for want of water they fall into great danger of their lives.  Galleys are forced all most every ten days to put in for fresh water, and therefore they cannot long wander in enemy countries, nor go far, for enemies stop their passages.    Moreover, in sea towns, and islands, when they want water , as in our days, in the island Malta, and in the Syrses, soldiers and inhabitants endured much hardness, and history relates many such things.  Hence I thought it necessary to search curiously, whether sea-water may be made potable.  But it is impossible to find out anything for this, how it may be done, unless we first find out the cause of saltiness, and what our ancestors have said concerning that matter, especially since Aristotle says, that the salt may easily be taken from the sea, because the sea is not salt of its own nature, but by the sun that heats the water, which draws out of it, cold and dry earthly exhalations to the top of it, and these being there burnt cause it to be Salt, when the moist subtle parts are resolved into thin vapors.  We therefore imitating nature, by raising the thin parts by chemical instruments, we easily make it sweet.  For so the nature of the sea, makes sweet waters for the rivers.  There are also veins of the sea, in the deep parts of the earth, that are heated by the sun, and the vapors are elevated to the tops of the highest mountains, where by the cold superficies they meet with, they congeal into drops; and dropping down by the vaulted roots of caves, they run forth in open streams.  We first fill a hollow vessel like a great ball, with Sea-water, it must have a long neck, and a cap upon it, that live coals being put under the water may resolve into thin vapors.  And fill all vacuities, being carried aloft.  This ill scented grossness, when it comes to touch the coldness of the head or cap, and meets with the glass, gathers like dew about the skirts of it.  And so running down the arches of the cap, it turns to water, and a pipe being opened that pertains to it, it runs forth largely, and the receiver stands to receive it as it drops.  So will sweet water come from Salt, and the Salt tarries at the bottom of the vessel.  Three pounds of Salt-water, will give two pounds of fresh water.  But if the cap of the Limbeck be of Lead, it will afford more water, yet not so good.  For Galen says, that water that runs through pipes of Lead, if it be drank, will cause an excoriation of the intestines.  But I found a way,

"How to get a greater quantity of fresh water, when we distill salt-water."

Make a cap of earth, like to a Pyramis, all full of holes, that through the holes, Urinals of earth or Glass may be brought in. Let their mouths stick forth, well luted that the vapor may not exhale.  The cap after the fashion of the Limbeck, must have its pipe at the bottom running round, and let it drop forth at the nose of it.  Set this upon a Brass Cauldron, that will hold much water.  Fill it with salt water, after that the Urinals.  And putting on their caps, when fire is put under, both the Urinals will drop, and the cap that contains others, by its pipe will drop our water also.  For the vapors rising from the Cauldron of hot water, will make the Urinals drop, and the cap will drop withal.  But if at sea the commodity of such a vessel cannot be had.  We may,

"Distill Salt-water otherwise,"

Though but little.  Discorides shows the old way of Distillation.  We may that way distil Sea-water in ships, which Pliny shows also.  Fleeces of Wool extended about the ship, are made wet by the vapors rising from the sea, and sweet water is pressed out of them. But let us see, if,

"Salt-water may be made fresh another way,"

Aristotle says it, and Solomon before him, that all rivers came from the sea, and return to the sea.  For by the secret passages underground, the waters that are sent forth, leave their earthly and dry parts mixed with the earth, and they come forth pure and sweet.  He says, the cause why the Salt-water comes not forth is, because it is ponderous, and settles, and therefore only hot waters of saltwater, can run forth, for they have a lightness that overstays the weight of the salt.  For what is hot is lightest.  Add, that waters running through the earth are much strained, and therefore the heavier and thicker they are, the more do they continually sink down and are left behind.  And the lighter they are, the more pure do they come forth and are severed.  For as Salt is heavy, so sweet water is light.  And so it comes, that they are sweet waters that run forth.  This is the very cause why Salt-water, when it moves and is changed, is made the sweeter, or motion makes it lighter and purer.  Let us see now if we can imitate nature.  Fill then great vessels with earth, and set them so one above another, that one may drain into another.  and thus Salt-water drains through many vessels, may leave the salt behind.  I tried it through ten vessels, and it remained still Salt.  My friend said, that he made it sweet through twenty vessels.  Yet thus I thought to warn you of, that all earth is not fit for this use.  Solinus says, that Sea-water strained through clay will grow sweet.  And it is proved that the Salt is taken away, if you strain it often through the thin sand of a river.  Earth that lies in covered places, and under roots, is naught, for that is commonly Salt.  As also where cattle are stalled, which Columella says is naught for trees.  For that it makes saltwater, what is strained from it.  Black earth is naught, for it makes waters sharp, but clay grounds make sweet waters.  Paxamus, Anaxagoras said, that the saltiness of the sea came from the rivers, running through salt places, communicating the quality to the sea.  Some approve river gravel for this use.  And the reason is this, because always sweet waters are found by the shores, and they say this happens, because they are strained through the sand, and so grow fresh coming from the salt sea.  For the sweet water that is found near the sea, is not the sea, but such water as comes from the tops of hills, through the secret channels of the earth.  For waters that drain forth sweet, are sweet though they lie even with the sea, and in plain places.  As Apuila, where the waters drain not from the hills, they are Salt.   So on the shores of Africa.  But Aristotle brings an experiment from a vessel of Wax.  For if one make a ball of Wax that is hollow, and shall dip it into the sea, it being of a sufficient thickness to contain, he shall find it full of fresh water, because the corpulent saltiness cannot get in through the pores of the Wax.  And Pliny, by letting down little nets into the sea, and hollow balls of wax, or empty vessels stopped, says, they will draw in fresh water.  For Sea-water strained through clay will grow fresh.  But I have found this to be false.  For I have made pots of clay, as fine and well as I could, and let them down into Salt-water, and after some days I found Salt-water in them.  Also, if it were true, it is of no use, when as to sweeten one pound of water, a thousand balls of wax a day were not sufficient.  But for this many vessels might be invented of porous wood and stones.  A vessel of Ivy, that parts, as I said, wine from water, will not part salt from water if it drains through it.  But stones are brought from Portingal, made into vessels, into which sea water put will drain forth sweet, if not he first, yet the second time, they use it to break the stone.  Also, for that many Pumex and porous stones may be tried.  Leo Baptista Albertus says, that an earthen pot will stopped, and put into the sea, will fill with potable water.  But I have tried all earthen vessels, and I always found salt water.   Aristotle in his Problems, says, it may be done,

"Another way,"

If Salt-water cannot be drank cold, yet hot, and cool again, it is better to drink.  It is because a thing uses to change contrary to contrary.  And Salt-water  is contrary to fresh, and when it is boiled, the salt part is boiled off, and when it is cold stays at the bottom.  This I tried and found false, and more Salt, for by heat the thin vapors of the water that are sweet exhale, and the Salt stays behind.  And in lesser water, the same quantity of Salt makes it saltier, as I said in my distillations.  I wonder such a wise man would relate such falsities.  Florentinus borrowing it from him, says, if water be not good nor potable, but ill, let it be boiled, till a tenth part of it be consumed.  Then purge it, and it will be good.  For Sea-water so boiled, will grow sweeter.  Let me see whether it can be made so,

"Another way,"

and that in great quantity.  There is a thing that being cast into large vessels filled with Sea-water , by fastening the Salt will make it fall to the bottom, or by curdling it, and so it frees the water from it.  Wherefore we must think on things that have a styptic quality.  The ancients tried this.  the moderns have effected it.  Pliny.  Nitrous of bitter waters.  If you put Barley flower dried to them, they are tempered.

"How sweet waters may be mended.."

Leo Baptista says, if you place a glazed vessel full of Salt, and well stopped with lime, putting oil under that no water may penetrate into it, that it may hang in the middle of the waters of a Cistern.  These waters will in no time corrupt.  Others add also Quicksilver.  If water begins to corrupt, cast in Salt to purge it.  And if Salt is wanting, put in some Sea-water.  For so at Venice they draw water from St. Nicolas well for mariners that go on long voyages, because it stands so near the sea, and Salt lies hidden in it, by communicating with those water.  We read in Scripture, that Elizeus did this, who at Jericho in Palestine, cast in salt into a fountain, and made it potable water, which was before bitter and corrupt.  If water breeds Worms cast in Quicklime, and they will die.  When we would make wine clear, beat the white of an Egg, and the troubled wine will descend if you put it in.  Others cast in the dust that is on the Catlings of small Nuts, and the Spaniards cast in Gyp, to make it clear and all these we may use in waters.

Chapter II

"How to make water of Air."

If all other means fail, we may make water of air only by changing it into air, as nature does.  for she makes water of air or vapors.  Therefore when we want, water we may make it of air, and do as nature does.  We know when the sun heats the earth, it draws forth the thinnest vapors, and carries them on high, to that region of the air where the cold is, those vapors are condensed into drops, and fall down in the rain.  Also we see in summer, that in glass vessels well rinsed, and that are full of cold water, the air by coming to the outermost surfaces, will presently cloud the Glass and make it lose its cleanness.  A little after it will be all in a dew and swell into bubbles, and by degrees these will turn to drops, and fall down, which have no other reason for them.  But because the cold air sticking to the glass, grows thick, and is changed into water.  We also see in Chambers at Venice, where there are windows made of Glass, when a gross and thick vapor sticks to the glass within, and a cold vapor prevails without, that within will turn to dew, and drop down.  Again, in winter, in Brass guns, which are always very cold, and are kept in cellars, and vaulted places, where men also use to be, that the air will grow thick, and lighting upon the cold surfaces of them, the will be all of a dew, and drop with water.  But to say no more:  Make a large round vessel of Brass, and put into it Saltpeter, unrefined, and will fill it.  Men call it Solzaao mingled with Ice.  For these two mixed, as I said in the book, make a mighty cold, and by shaking them, with the wonderful force of the cold, they gather air about the vessel, and it will presently drop into a vessel underneath.  A diligent artist will add more, that he may get a greater quantity of water.  It suffices that I shown the way.

Chapter III

"How one may so alter his face that not so much as his friends shall know him."

Such as are taken prisoner, or shut up close and desire to escape, and such as do business for great men, as spies, and others that would not be known, it is of great moment for them to know how to change their countenances.  I will teach them to do it so exactly, that their friends and wives shall not know them.  Great men do not a little enquire about such secrets, because those that can dissemble their own persons, have done great matters, and lovers have served their mistresses, and parents have not suspected it.  Ulysses attempting to know what the Trojans did, clothed in counterfeit garments, and his face changed, did all he would, and was not discovered.  Homer,

With many scars he did transform his face,

In servants clothes, as from a beggars race.

He went to Troy,.....

And when he desired to know what Penelope and her suitors did, he transformed himself again.  I shall show how this may be done in many ways, by changing the garments, hair, countenance, scars, swellings.  We may so change our faces, the in some places it may rise in bunches, in other places it may sink down.  And first,

"How to dye the flesh."

But to begin with the coloring of the flesh.  The flesh may be dyed to last so long, or to be soon washed out.  If you will have it soon washed off, steep the shells of Walnuts, and of Pomegranates in Vinegar, four or five days.  Then press them forth by a Press, and dye the face.  For it will make you as black as an Ethiopian, and this will last some four days.  Oil of Honey makes a yellow color, and red, and it will last fourteen days or more.  The fume of Brimstone will discolor the face, that it will show sickly, as if one had long kept his bed, but it will be soon gone.  But if you will have it last many days firm, and very hardly to come off.  Use Water of Depart, that separates Gold from Silver, made of Saltpeter and Vitriol, and especially if it have first corroded any Silver.  This will last twenty days, until the skin be changed.  But if you will,

"Change the hair."

I taught elsewhere how to do this.  Yet I will take the pains to do it again.   Oil of Honey dyes the hair of the head and beard, of a yellow or red color.  And this will hold a month.  But if they be hoary, white, or yellow, we may dye them black with a strong Lixivium, wherein Litharge is boiled.  Also, it will notably alter the countenance,

"To add or take of hair."

An Unguent used in stoves and hot-houses, is good for that purpose, made of Orpiment and Quicklime.  For this will presently make the part bald, so the eyelids and eyebrows being made smooth, will strangely metamorphose a man.  We can also make the hair grow suddenly, with Water of Honey, and the fat of an Eel and Horse, as I said.  One may thus,

"Make his face swelled, pressed eon, or full of scars."

Nothing does more deform the visage then the stinging of Bees.  We can make scars with caustic herbs, by applying them, and letting them lie on for a little time.  Tumors and cavities are made by using to the part milk of Tithymal, as to the mouth, nose, eyes, especially where the skin is off, that by this remedy alone the face is deformed.  So you may do the Cods and testicles.  Water of Cantharides smeared on, does presently cause bladders and humors.  Turbith beaten, and boiled, and anointed on, makes all swell where it touches, chiefly the testicles.  The powder of the Yew, does so ulcerate the skin, and people will think the man is most miserable, and in a sad condition.  The remedy is the juice of the Poplar, or Oil of Poplar.  The fume of Brimstone and burnt straw will discolor the face, as hypocrites do, who by such means alter their countenance.  Mingle together the feces of Aquafortis one ounce, Pickle and Curcuma, of each one Drachm, with oil to the form of an Unguent, and anoint your face, it will make it black.  When you will wash it with cold water, it will come to its former complexion.  Comedians and tragedians, when they act on the stage, they smear their faces with Lees of Oil to change them, that such as their acquaintance may not know them.  Because the stinging of Bees, Wasps, Hornets, do so change the face, making the nose, mouth and other parts to stand awry, and to be full of swellings and depressions.  If any man wash his skin with the decoction of Hornets or Wasps, the place will so swell that it will make men suspect some disease, yet it is without pain.  The remedy is Theriot drank, or smeared on the part.  And this is the fraud that false women use to counterfeit themselves to be with child.  Beat together Oil Lees, coals of a Vine and Pomegranate pills.  And mingle them, and if you touch your face with this liniment, you shall make it exceeding black.  But the juice of sour Grapes or Milk will wash it off.

Chapter IV

"That Stones may move alone."

The ancients say, that the stones called Prochites and Astroites, laid upon some other plain stone, will move of themselves, if you put Vinegar to them.  The way shall be this.  Let a plain well polished, on the outward surfaces, Porphyr Marble stone, lie beneath.  Lay upon this the stone Trochites or Astroites, whose outward surfaces, is made smooth also.  Then put to them a little Vinegar or juice of Lemons.  Presently of themselves will the Trochites, as well as the Astroites, without anything moving them, go to the declining surface.  And it is very pleasant to see this.  Cardan says,  that such stones have a thin moisture in them which by the force of the Vinegar, is turned into a vapor.  and when it cannot get forth, it tumbles the stone up and down.  There is the beginning of a thin vapor, but it comes not forth.  Because it is credible that the passages are very narrow.  I should think that air is shut up in the veins of it.  For it is probable, where you shall see substances of diverse colors.  Wherefore Vinegar, because it is subtle of parts, goes in, and drives out the air, which passing out by the Vinegar, moves the stone.  Yet I have found open passages in their veins.  For the Vinegar entering in the joints, forces the stone to move itself.  The Alabaster stone, called vulgarly Lodognium, moves excellently.  For it is distinguished by diverse veins, and varieties of stones.  And I have seen a piece, not only of one pound, but of four pounds to move itself, and it was like a Tortois.  And when the stone began to move, it seemed like a Tortois crawling.  That kind of Marble moves by itself with Vinegar, which is called Brocadello, which is compounded of diverse and mingled parts. Also with Vinegar does that spotted Marble walk.  Which is spotted with red, yellow, and brown spots.  They call it the Lowsie stone, and it make the beholders to wonder at it.  If the Marble be spotted underneath, and be above all of one color and hard, or beneath all of one color and hard, and the above is diverse colors, when Vinegar is poured on, or any sharp Liquor, it runs presently to the declining part.  Sometimes in circles, sometimes by jumps, and sometimes hastily moving itself.

Chapter V

"How an Instrument may be made, that we may hear by it a great way."

In my Optics, I showed you Spectacles, wherewith one might see very far.  Now I will try to make an instrument, wherewith we may hear man miles.  And I will search out a wood, wherewith that may be performed better and with more ease.  Therefore to find out the form of this instrument, we must consider the ears of all living creatures, that hear best.  for this is confirmed in the principles of natural philosophy, that when any new things are to be invented, nature must be searched, and followed.  Therefore to consider of animals, that have the quickest hearing, we must think of those that are the most fearful.  Nor nature takes care for their safety, that as they have no great strength.  Yet they might exceed others in hearing, and save themselves by flight.  As the Hare, Coney, Hart, the Ass, Ox, and the like.  These creatures have great ears, and always open toward their foreheads.  And the open passages are to carry the sound form the place whence it comes.  Hares therefore have long ears standing up high.  Pollux.  But Festus calls the Hare, Auritum, because of its great ears, and quickness of hearing.  The Greeks call the Hare Lagos form the great ears.  For La in composition augments, and Os signifies an ear, and it was fit that a fearful creature should hear well, that it might perceive dangers farther off, and take care for itself in time.  The Egyptians thought the Hare so quick of hearing, that it was their Hieroglyphic for hearing.  The Coney is of the same nature, and has the same kind of ears.  Cows have great hairy ears.  She can hear a Bull roar when he seeks to Bull a  Cow, thirty Furlongs off, as giving this token of his love.  Aelian.  A Hart has greater and longer ears, as it is a fearful creature.  If he holds his ears up, he perceives sharply, and no snares can take him.  But if he holds his ears down, he is easily slain.  Aristotle and Pliny from him.  When they raise their ears, they hear quickly.  When they let them fall, they are afraid.  And not to go over all creatures that have large right up open ears, I say those that have such ears, are of most perfect hearing.  I shall show now by the contrary, that such creatures which have short small ears, and not so visible, are of dull hearing.  Great part of fishes want ears, and such as have only holes and no ears, must needs hear more deafly.  For the outward ears are made by nature, that the sounds might be conveyed to the ears by them.  Adrianus Consul of Rome, is a most clear witness of this, who having this sense hurt, made hollow catches to hear better by.  And these he fastened to his ears, looking forward.  And  Aristotle says, that Horses, Asses, Dogs, and other creatures that have great ears, do always stir them about, and turn them to hear noise.  Nature teaching them the use of those parts.  And we find that they hear less that have heir ears cut off.  Wherefore it is fit, that the form of the instrument for hearing, be large, hollow, and open, and with screws inwardly.  For the first, if the sound should come in directly, it would hurt the fence.  For the second, the voice coming in by windings, is beaten by the turning in the ears, and is thereby multiplied, as we see in an echo.  The Sea-Periwinkle is an argument to prove it, which being held to the ear makes a light noise.  Now it remains to speak of what matter it must be made.  I think of porous wood, for the holes and pores are passable every way, and being filled with air, they found with every small stroke.  And among the porous wood, is the Ivy, and especially the tree called Smilax or Woodbind.  For a dish made with Ivy, will let out the water as I said.  Wherefore Pliny, speaking of the Woodbind, says, it is proper to this matter, that being set to the ears, it will make a small noise.  And in another place, I said that the Woodbind-Ivy would sound, if set to the ear.  Therefore fit your instrument to put into your ear, as Spectacles are fitted to the eyes.

Chapter VI

"How by some impostures we may augment weight."

I have set down some impostures here, that such as handle with wicked men, may take heed that they be not deceived.  As,

"To augment the weight of Oil."

Water is mingled with the oil, that the fraud may not be known.  Let it be done with troubled waters, as with the decoction of Wood, Rapes, Asphodils, that it may the harder be discerned from it.  Or else they put the choicest Gum Traganth into water for two days.  Then they Bray it in a Mortar, always putting water to it, to melt the gum.  Add these to the oil dropping forth, and they will be turned to oil.  By the like fraud almost,

"Silk is made to weigh more,"

They put it upon the vapor that rises from boiling water, and this makes it swell with moisture, and grow heavier.  Others Bray one ounce of Gum Arabick, and being well passed through a sieve, they mingle it with the decoction of Honey.  They dissolve this mixture into water, and wet the Silk with it, and then let it dry.  Others keep it in the green leaves of a Walnut tree.  I you will,

"Increase the quantity of Honey."

Add to it the meal of Chestnuts of Millet, and that augments it, and it cannot be known.  So you may,

"Increase the weight of Wax."

Add to the Wax, Bean-meal, excellent well beaten.  And this will burn candles without any excrement.  For it increases the weight and bigness, and the fraud is scarce discerned.  So you may,

"Augment Soap."

If you mingle the ashes of Oxen's shank-bones, well burnt in Potter's ovens, or White Brimstone.  For you shall augment the weight and quantity, without and distinction of it.  If you would,

"Counterfeit Pepper,"

You may gather green Juniper berries, and let them dry till they shrivel.  Then mix them with grains of Pepper.  Others gather great black Vetches, and first they boil them with wild Pepper.  For swelling in the water, when they come to be dried, they become wrinkled.  I did sophisticate them so, that I deceived in sport the best Apothecaries.  And afterwards, I did in mirth discover the fraud.  Take the berries of the ripe red Sanguinaria.  These when they are dried, will be so shriveled, and like to Pepper, that any man almost may be deceived by it, unless he tastes of it.  So we may,

"Increase the Weight of Wheat."

By setting a vessel of Wood within it, full of water or Vinegar.  For as Pliny says, it will drink it in.

Chapter VII

"Of the Harp and many wonderful properties thereof."

The Harp has some properties in it, and things worthy to be observed, which I shall propound here.  First, I shall mention some wonderful effects that the ancients speak of.  Then how they may be done, or how the ancients did then.  Since Music is now more adorned and noble, then it was among the ancients (for then it was more rude and imperfect) and yet in our days it does not perform those operations.  It is certain that musical tunes can do much with men, and there is no heart so hard and cruel, but convenient and sweet harmony will make it yield.  And on the other side, harsh Music will vex and harden a man's mind.  Musaus discovers, that verse and songs are a most delightful thing to a mortal man.  And the Platonists say, that all things living are charmed by Music.  And there are many effects observed of it.  Drums found in the wars to provoke those that are slow to fight.  And we read that the ancients did such like things.  One Timotheus, a musician, as often as he pleased would pay a Phrygian tune, and so enrage the mind of Alexander, that he ran presently to the wars.  And when he would do otherwise, he changed his tune, and took off all his courage making him lazy, and would then draw him being grown effeminate, to banquets and feasts.  And Plutarch says, that when he heard Antigenida playing melodies with a Pipe, that they called Harmatii, he was so inflamed, that he rose in his arms, and laid hold of him that sat next to him.  Cicero reports, that Pythagoras made a young man more calm by a flower tune, who was a Tancomonite, and was Whitled with Wine, and mad for a Whore, and spurred forward by a Phrygian tune.  For being a Corrival, he fought to set the house on fire where the Whore was.  And the same author says, if young men are provoked by the sound of flutes to commit any wickedness, if the piper plays but a flower tune, they are called off again.  For by the gravity of the Music their petulant fury is set aside.  Empedocles, when one sets upon his host, that provoked him with reproaches and ill language turned the burden of his song, and so assuaged the fury of his anger.  Theophrastus is reported to have used musical tunes to repress the passions of the mind.  And Agamemnon departing from his country to go to Troy, doubting of the Chastity of Clytemnestra, left a Harper, who with Music did so incite her to Continency and Chastity, that Egystus could not enjoy her till he had killed the Harper.  The Thracian Orpheus by the playing on his Harp, made barbarous nations civil who were as hard as stones to be softened.  Music charms the tender ears of children, and Rattles will make them quiet, and hold their peace when they cry.  Wherefore Chrysippus is reported to have written a peculiar song for Nurses.  Also wild beasts are tamed with musical tunes.  Arion the Harper made friends of the Dolphins that want reason, and they carried him safe to the shore, when he was cast into the sea.  Strabo says, the Elephants are allured with Drums.  Stags are held with sounds, and caught with sweet Music.  The Swans under the north wind are conquered by the Harp and musical tunes.  Little birds are enticed to the net with Pipes.  And the shepherds Pipe commands to the sheep, when they wander too far to field, to stand still.  In Mysia, when Horses back Mares, a man sings to them as it were a marriage song, and the mares are so taken with the Music, that they become great with foal, and they bring forth most gallant ColtsPythocaris, a musician, when he sang earnestly swift notes to his pipe, is said to have made Wolves become more tame.  And which is far more wonderful, antiquity cured wounds, diseases, and poisons by melody, as history relates.  Terpander and Aaron of Methymna, cured the men of Lesbos and Jonia of great diseases.  Asclepiades, a physician, cured deaf people by a Trumpet, and by singing he stilled the seditious people.  In time past there was great store of Spiders in Aquilia, which they commonly call Tarantula.  When the sun is extremely hot, they bite most pestilently, and venomously.  For this danger this healthful remedy is only found out.  That he that is bit must be charmed with much singing of musicians, and many musical instruments.  The sick, though he want all sense, so soon as he hears the Flute play, as if he rose from a dead sleep, arises from the earth, and dances with the Music.  And if the musicians cease to play, he presently faints and grows stupid and as the Music strikes up, so he does dance the more.  So to several diseases the ancients appointed several Music.  For the Dorick melody caused prudence, chastity, and learning.  The Phrygians made men to fight, and grow furious, which the Flute will do also.  Therefore Aristoxenus, in his plays, when he could not prevail with Dorick Music, he changed to Phrygian melody that agreed with them.  The Lydian harmony sharpens wit to those that are dull, and brings in a desire of heavenly things, upon those that are oppressed with a love of earthly things.  Aristotle in his Politicks, do we not read that the Lacedaemonians rejected that kind of Music called Chromaticum, because it made those that heard it too effeminate?  Whence I think it is not against reason, that the same may be done by the Lute or Harp alone, but what is done by art or cunning, is more to be wondered at, which none can deny.  But if we would seek out the cause of this, we shall not ascribe it to the Music, but to the instrument, and the Wood they are made of, and to the skins.  Since the properties of dead beasts are preserved in their parts, and of trees cut up in their wood, as I said elsewhere in this book.  And to take the most noted examples, if we will,

"Frighten Sheep,"

There is antipathy between Sheep and Wolves, as I said often, and it remains in all their parts.  So that an instrument strung will Sheep strings, mingled with strings made of a Wolf's gut, will make no Music, but jar, and make discords.  Pythagoras.  If you will,

"Drive away Horses."

Horses are frightened in battle by Elephants, and a Camel naturally hates a Horse, as Aristotle and Pliny say.  And some report that Horses will burst if they tread upon the Wolf's footing, when the horseman rides them.  So that if drums be made of an Elephant, Camel, or Wolves skin, and one beat them, the Horses will run away and dare not stand.  By the same reason, if you will,

"Drive away Bears,"

A Horse, that is a creature made obedient to man, has a capital hatred with a Bear, that is a beast hurtful to man.  He will know his enemy that he never saw before, and presently provide himself to fight with him, and he uses art rather then strength for it.  And I have heard that Bears have been driven away in the wilderness by the sound of a drum, when it was made of a Horse skin.  Again if we would,

"Make Horses gentle,"

Aelian writes that by the playing on a Flute, the Lybian Horses are so allured, that by this means they will become gentle for man's use.  And will not be so furious.  They will follow the groom that feeds them, wherever he pleases to lead them with his music.  When he plays and stands, they stand still.  And if he plays eagerly on the Flute, they are so ravished with it, that they cannot hold crying, and let tears fall.  Those that keep Horses make a hollow pipe of the tree called Rose-Laurel, and they go among the herd with this, playing on it they charm them all.  Theophrastus has told us that the herb Oenothera will tame wild beasts, and make them drunk.  And as I said elsewhere, Theophrastus his Oenothera is our Rose-Laurel, against  Dioscorides.  It is reported that,

"Women will miscarry,"

If Fiddle strings be made of Serpents, especially of Vipers, for being put on a Harp and played on, if women