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(note:  herbs/plants ref. w/"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- where possible.)

or   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)

Ladanum \  Labdanum (Ladanum)                 

LAD'ANUM - The resinous juice which exsudes from the leaves of the Cistus ladanifera, a shrub which grows in Arabia, Candia, and other parts of the Archipelago. It is collected with a kind of rake, with leather thongs attached to it, with which the shrubs are brushed. The best sort is in dark-colored black masses, of the consistence of a soft plaster. The other sort is in long rolls coiled up, harder than the former, and of a paler color. It is chiefly used in external applications.

"...Is to be made by putting Benjamin into a glass retort, and fitting it to the furnace.  Then increase the fire without any fear of combustion, and you will obtain a fragent oil, to be used in precious ointments.  So Oil of Storax, Calamite, and Labdanum, and other Gums..."

"...Beat the Ladanum, and macerate it fifteen days in AquaVita, or Greek wine, at least ten.  For the longer it infuses, the sooner it will run into oil..."

Lacedamonian Dogs   

"...Aristotle, and out of him Galen, report, that beasts may couple together, though they be of a diverse kind, so that their nature do not much differ, and they be of a like bigness, and thereby suitable for their times of breeding and bringing forth, as it is betwixt dogs and wolves, of both which, are gendred swift dogs, called Lacedaemonian dogs..."

Ladies Mantel (Lady's Mantel)      

Lady's Mantel - The Lady's Mantle and the Parsley Piert, two small, inconspicuous plants, have considerable reputation as herbal remedies. They both belong to the genus Alchemilla of the great order Rosaceae, most of the members of which are natives of the American Andes, only a few being found in Europe, North America and Northern and Western Asia.

 "....Vulnerary potions...Or take two handfuls of Pirole, of Sanicle, of Sowbread one.  Of Ladies Mantel half one.  Boil them in two measures of Wine, and drink it morning and evening..."

 "...But I use the juice of Ladies Mantel from the leaves of it.  And I wet Linen in it and lay it on the breasts, and renew it.  For it will not only hinder Virgin's breasts from increasing, but will fasten the loose breasts of matrons, and make them firm..."


Ladle - . A cuplike spoon, often of large size, with a long handle, used in lading or dipping.

"...To nine vessels of water put eighteen pounds of Honey, into Brass Caldrons convered with Tin, and let them boil a long time, stirring all with wooden Ladles..."


See:   Hare

"...The Greeks call the Hare Lagos form the great ears.  For La in composition augments, and Os signifies an ear, and it was fit that a fearful creature should hear well, that it might perceive dangers farther off, and take care for itself in time..."


Caius Lalius

"...Pliny writes, that in the year of Caius Lalius and Lucius Domitus Consulship, there was born a maid-child that had two heads, four hands, and was of double nature in all respects..."


"... Dissolve in what quantity of warm water you think proper or be in need of a sufficient quantity of that salt as may saturate it which you know when you see the water can dissolve no more of it in this disolution, you put in a drachem of Calx or Magister of gold, then put in digestion in it silver Laminas cut small and thin, let them so for twentyfour hours over a very gentle fire..."


Lamb - The young of the sheep.

"...So a Lions skin wastes and eats out the skins of other beasts, and so does the Wolf's skin eat up the Lamb's skin..."


Lamprey - An eel-like marsipobranch of the genus Petromyzon, and allied genera. The lampreys have a round, sucking mouth, without jaws, but set with numerous minute teeth, and one to three larger teeth on the palate.

"...The Lamprey fights with serpents, and with her biting, kills the Basilisk, which is the most poisonous serpent that is..."

"...Before you boil your Lamprey, take out his bones, to make it more graceful, for his flesh is full of bones, which you shall do with two little sticks held in both hands..."

Lanthorns (Lantern)  

Lantern - Something inclosing a light, and protecting it from wind, rain, etc. ; -- sometimes portable, as a closed vessel or case of horn, perforated tin, glass, oiled paper, or other material, having a lamp or candle within; sometimes fixed, as the glazed inclosure of a street light, or of a lighthouse light.

"... Let there be measure made like Lanthorns, so that they may go in at the mouths of the Brass Guns.  Fill them with powder of Euphorbium, Pepper, Quicklime, Vine ashes, and Arsnick Sublimate..."  


Lapwing - A small European bird of the Plover family (Vanellus cristatus, or V. vanellus). It has long and broad wings, and is noted for its rapid, irregular fight, upwards, downwards, and in circles. Its back is coppery or greenish bronze. Its eggs are the plover's eggs" of the London market, esteemed a delicacy. It is called also peewit, dastard plover, and wype. The gray lapwing is the Squatarola cinerea.

"...The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose..."

Larch Tree   

Larch - A genus of coniferous trees, having deciduous leaves, in fascicles.

"... Whence, Pliny writes, the Larch tree will neither burn to coals, nor is otherwise consumed by fire, then stones are..."

"...Vitruvius says, that the Larch tree wood will not burn, or kindle by itself, but like a stone in the furnace, will make no coals, but burn very slowly..."


Lard - The fat of swine, esp. the internal fat of the abdomen; also, this fat melted and strained. Lard oil, an illuminating and lubricating oil expressed from lard.

"...And if you Lard the Bullets, they will penetrate through arms of proof..."

"...Let the Goose be smeared all over with Suet, and well Larded, that he may be the better meat, and roast the better.."


Lark - Any one numerous species of singing birds of the genus Alauda and allied genera (family Alaudidæ). They mostly belong to Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. The true larks have holaspidean tarsi, very long hind claws, and usually, dull, sandy brown colors.

"...The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the Larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose..."

"...Galen says, that the Lark has a crested crown, of the fashion of the Herb Fumitory, and that either of them is good against the Colick..."


"...So the herb Laser in Africa, is generated of a kind of pitchy or clammy rain and thick dirt.  And the herb will show itself out of the earth presently after the rain is fallen..."

"...Pulse will keep long...If they are sprinkled with Vinegar mixed with the juice of Laser..."


Latro  - (Marcus Porcius), a Roman rhetorician in the reign of Augustus; a Spaniard by birth. ("I became as mad as the disciples of Porcius Latro, who, when they had made themselves as pale as their master by drinking decoctions of cumin, imagined themselves as learned." —Lesage: Gil Blas, vii. 9 (1735).)

"...Cumine taken in drink causes paleness.  So it is reported, that the followers of Portius Latro, that famous maser of rhetoric, endeavored to imitate that color which he had contracted by study..."


Latin - Of or pertaining to Latium, or to the Latins, a people of Latium; Roman; as, the Latin language.

"...Make a great cup of Silver, red Arsenic and Latin, with a cover that fits close, that nothing may exhale..."

"...Wet the vessel in cold water, and set it in the fire.  When it is red hot, quench it in cold water.  Then scrape off the Gold with Latin wire bound together..."


Latitude - Distance north or south of the equator, measured on a meridian.

"...And sailing under the Equator, we do observe the chief motions of the Needle.  And the Declinations of it.  And shall accommodate the same to the proportion of our voyage.  We shall easily know the Longitude and Latitude in dark nights, and the greatest tempests may be certainly discovered..."

"...The Latitude whereof will be about twenty foot. .."


Lattice - Any work of wood or metal, made by crossing laths, or thin strips, and forming a network; as, the lattice of a window; -- called also latticework.

"...Then wash or Steep them a whole day in cold water, and afterward lay them a drying upon Wicker Lattices, handling them very gently..."


Laurel - An evergreen shrub, of the genus Laurus (L. nobilis), having aromatic leaves of a lanceolate shape, with clusters of small, yellowish white flowers in their axils; -- called also sweet bay.

"...Thus you may without any fear of burning, draw oil out of flowers, leaves, spices, gums, and wood with the most vehement fires, as also out of Juniper and Laurel berries..."


"...To which end, let water be often poured into the Lavel, and stirred about, the dust of the Mortar will rise to the top, by reason of its levity, and powder of pebbles will retire to the bottom by the reason of its weight..."


Lavender -  is a shrubby plant indigenous to the mountainous regions of the countries bordering the western half of the Mediterranean, and cultivated extensively for its aromatic flowers in various parts of France, in Italy and in England and even as far north as Norway. It is also now being grown as a perfume plant in Australia.

"...Either with Cinders, or in Balneo Mariae, but only, observe to kindle the fire by degrees, lest they burn.  There are also in some plants, sweet leaves, as in Myrtle, Lavender, Citron, and such like, which if you mix with the flowers, will no way hinder the favour of them, but add a pleasantness to the waters..."

"...Take two pounds of Rosewater, of Lavender half one, of Cretan Wine thirteen Drachms, of the flowers of Gilliflowers, Roses, Rosemary, Jasmine, the leaves of Marjoram, wild Betony, Savory, Fennel, and Basil Gentle, half a pound..."  ("To make a most sweet perfumed water.")


Laxative - A substance which promotes bowel movements.

 "...They Grafted it into the Service tree, likely for this cause, that whereas the fruit of itself would make a man Laxative, the sharp taste of the Service tree being mixed with it, might cause it to be more binding..."


Lead - A bluish-white metal of bright luster, very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a poor conductor of electricity; very resistant to corrosion; a cumulative poison.

"...Then take a Foil of Wax or Lead, of a convenient thickness, that exceeds the breadth of the arch of the Hexagon, and in length exceeds them both..."

"...Let it not be a Steel glass, because it cannot sustain the heat of burning, and by burning it loses its brightness.  Let it be therefore of glass a finger thick.  Let the Tin Foil be of purged Antimony and Lead, such as they make in Germany..."


League - An alliance or combination of two or more nations, parties, or persons, for the accomplishment of a purpose which requires a continued course of action, as for mutual defense, or for furtherance of commercial, religious, or political interests, etc.

"...Because there is such a natural concord and sympathy between the Iron and the Loadstone, as if they had made a League.  That when the Loadstone comes near the Iron, the Iron presently stirs, and runs to meet it, to be embraced by the Loadstone..."


Leather - The skin of an animal, or some part of such skin, tanned, tawed, or otherwise dressed for use; also, dressed hides, collectively.

"... Into these cells you must put your  Figs and wrap the Gourd about with a swath of cloth or Leather.  And then hang up the Gourd in a dark place where neither fire nor smoke may come at them..."

"...After this, you must take the congealed stuff when it is cold and bind it up hard with your hands in Leather thongs, or Linen cloth, or Osiers, that all the juice and moisture that is in it, may be sqeezed out of it..."


Leaven - An agent, such as yeast, that causes batter or dough to rise, especially by fermentation.

"...But Tarentinus speaks of this matter more precisely.  If, says he, you cut the stock of a Black Poplar piecemeal into the earth, and pour upon it some Leaven that has been steeped in water, there will soon grow up some Poplar Toadstools..."

"...Out of Didymus some add Nitre, for Nitre makes Bread more crumbly, as it does flesh also.  Some the day before they make their Bread, cast Grapes into the water, and the next day when they will make their Bread they take them away, for they