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A Table Containing the General Heads of Natural Magick

"Preface To The Reader"

The Third Book of Natural Magick

"Which delivers certain precepts of Husbandry, and shows how to intermingle sundry kinds of Plants and how to produce new kinds."



Chapter I - "How new kinds of Plants may be generated of putrefactions"

Chapter II - "How Plants are changed, one of them degenerating into the form of the other."

Chapter III - "How to make one fruit compounded of many."

Chapter IV - "Of a second means whereby fruits may be mingled and compounded together"

Chapter V - "Of a third way, whereby diverse kinds of fruits may be compounded together."

Chapter VI - "How a double fruit may be made, whereof the one is contained within the other."

Chapter VII - "Of another device, whereby strange fruits may be generated, and made either better or worse."

Chapter VIII - "How to procure ripe fruits and flowers before their ordinary season."

Chapter IX - "How we may have fruits and flowers at all time of the year."

Chapter X - "How to produce fruits that shall be later and backward."

Chapter XI - "How we may cause fruit to grow bigger then their ordinary kind."

Chapter XII - "How to produce fruit that shall not have any stone or kernel in it."

Chapter XIII - "How fruit may be produced without any outward rinds or shells."

Chapter XIV - "How to procure fruits, to be of diverse colors, such as are not naturally incident to their kind."

Chapter XV - "How the color of Flowers may also be changed."

Chapter XVI - "How fruits and Flowers may be made to yield better flavor then ordinary."

Chapter XVII - "How to procure fruits to be sweeter and pleasanter for taste."

Chapter XVIII - "How fruits that are in their growing, may be made to receive and resemble all figures and impressions whatsoever."

Chapter XIX - " How fruits may be made to be more tender, and beautiful, and goodly to the eye."

Chapter XX - "How diverse kinds of fruits, and likewise Wines may be made medicinable."

Chapter XXI - "How to plant Fruits and Vines, that they may yield greatest increase."

The Proeme

We have rehearsed concerning different kinds of new living creatures. Now I shall speak of plants, which ravish with admiration the eyes and minds of those that contemplate on them, with their abundant pleasantness, and wonderful elegance. These bring more profit, and by these a natural Philosopher may seem more admirable. For use made with the earth, is more honest and honorable then with other things, and the ground never grows old or barren, but is everywhere naturally rank to receive new seed, and to produce new, and is ever unsatisfied fruitfulness, and brings perpetual increase. And if nature be always admirable, she will seem more wonderful in plants. Copulation was but of one kind, here it is almost infinite, and not only every tree can be Engrafted into every tree, but one tree may be adulterated with them all. Living creatures of diverse kinds were not easily produced. And those that come from other countries were hard to get. Here is no difficulty at all. Grafts are fetched and sent, if need be, to any part of the world. And if diversity of creatures are made in Africa, by their Copulating when they meet at the rivers, that so new creatures are always produced, here in Italy, where the air is always calm, and the climate very indulgent, strange and wild plants find a good harbor, and ground to grow in, which is the mother and nourisher of all, and so fruitful to produce a diversity of new types of plants, that it can hardly be exhausted. And we can better write of them, and know the truth more then others, because we have them still before our eyes, and an opportunity to study their effects. And if our ancestors found many new things, we by adding to theirs, have found many more, and shall produce more excellent things overpassing them, because daily by our art, or by chance, by nature or new experience, new plants are made. Diodorus writes, that the Vine at first was but one, and that was wild, but now by the help of Bacchus alone, from the quality of the ground, the nature of the climate, and the art of planting, it is varied into many kinds, that it were madness to number them up, and not worth our time. Nature brought forth but one kind of Pear tree. Now so many men's names are honored by it, that one is called Decumana, another Dolabelliana, and another is named from Decumius and Dolabella. The same thing is observed in Figs, of Livy and Pompey. Quinces are of many kinds, some called Mariana from Marius, Manliana from Manlius, Appiana Claudiana from Appius Claudius, Cestiana from Cestius. Their varieties have made the authors names immortal. What shall I say of Laurel Cherries, found in Pliny his time? What of Citrons? Which as Athenaues says, were too sharp to eat in the days of Theophrastus, and the ancestors of Plutark and Pliny, but Palladius made them to become sweet. What of the Peach, and Almond-peach nuts, fruits our fore-fathers knew not, yet now are they eaten, being pleasant and admirable? What of Clove-gilliflowers, that the gardeners art has made so dainty and sweet scented? And so of other plants I have everywhere set down in this work? Our Naples abounds so with them, that we would not go forth to see the orchards of the Hesperides, Alcinus, Semiramis, and at Memphis, that were made to hang above ground. But I shall briefly and plainly relate the History.

Chapter I

"How new kinds of Plants may be generated of Putrefaction."

S we have shown before, that new kinds of living creatures may be generated of Putrefaction, so , to proceed in the same order as we have begun, we will now show that new kinds of plants may grow up of their own accord, without any help of  feed or such like.  The Ancients, questionless,  were of opinion that diverse plants were generated of the earth and water mixed together, and that particular places did yield certain particular plants.  We rehearsed the opinion of Diogenes before, who held that plants are generated of water Putrefied in itself, and a little earth tempered therewith.  Theophrastus held, that the rain causes much Putrefaction and alteration in the earth, and thereby plants may be nourished, the Sun working upon it with his heating, and with his drying operation.  They write also, that the ground when it is stirred, brings forth such kinds of plants always, as are usual in the same place.  In the Isle Creta, the ground is of that nature, that if it be stirred anywhere, and no other thing, sown or planted in it, it will of itself bring forth a Cypress Tree.  And their tilled lands, those that are somewhat moist, when they lie fallow, bring forth Thistles.  So the Herb Laser in Africa, is generated of a kind of pitchy or clammy rain and thick dirt.  And the Herb will show itself out of the earth presently after the rain is fallen.  Pliny said, that the waters which fall from above, are the cause of every thing that grows upon the earth, nature showing therein her admirable work and power.  And many such things they report, which we have spoken of in the books of the knowledge of plants.  And I myself have often experienced, that ground dug out from under the lowest foundations of certain houses, and the bottom of some pits, and laid open in some small vessel to the force of the Sun, and watered them often with a little sprinkling, and found thereby, that a fine light earth would bring forth Herbs that had Slight stalks like a Rush, and leaves full of fine little ranges, and likewise that a rough and stiff earth full of holes, would bring forth a slight Herb, hard as wood, and full of crevices.  In like manner, if I took of the earth that had been dug out of the thick woods, or out of moist places, or out of the holes that are in hollow Stones, it would bring forth Herbs that had smooth bluish stalks, and leaves full of juice and substance, such as Penny-wort, Purslane, Senegreek, and Stone-crop.  We made trial also of some kinds of earth that had been far fetched, such as they had used for the Ballast of their ships, and we found such Herbs generated thereof, as we knew not what they were.  Nay further also, even out of very roots and barks of trees, and rotten seeds, pounded and buried, and there Macerated with water, we have brought forth in a manner the very same Herbs, as out of an Oaken root, the Herb Polypody, and Oak-fern, and Splenewort, or a least such Herbs as did resemble those, both in making and in properties.  What should I here rehearse, how many kinds of Toadstools and Puffs we have produced?  Yes, of every several mixture of Putrefied things, so many several kinds have been generated. All which I would here have set down, if I could have reduced them into any method, or else if such plants had been produced, as I intended.  But those come that were never sought for.  But happily I shall hereafter, if God will, write of these things, for the delight, and speculation, and profit of the more curious sort.  Which I have neither time nor leisure now to mention, seeing this work is rustled up in haste.  But let us see,

"How Toadstools may be generated."

Dioscorides, and others have written, that the bark of a White Poplar tree, and of a black, being cut into small pieces, and sowed in dug lands or furrows, will at all times of the year bring forth Mushrooms, or Toadstools that are good to be eaten.  And in another place he says, that they are more particularly generated in those places, where there lies some old rusty Iron, or some rotten cloth.  But such as grow near to a Serpent's hole, or any noisome plants, are very hurtful.  But Tarentinus speaks of this matter more precisely.  If, says he, you cut the stock of a Black Poplar piecemeal into the earth, and pour upon it some Leaven that has been steeped in water, there will soon grow up some Poplar Toadstools.  He adds further, if an upland or hilly field that has in it much stubble and many stalks of Corn, be set on fire at such time as there is a rain brewing in the clouds, then the rain falling, will cause many Toadstools there to spring up of their own accord.  But if, after the field is thus set on fire, happily the rain which the clouds before threatened does not fall, then, if you rake a thin Linen cloth, and let the water drop through by little and little like rain, upon some part of the field, where the fire has been, there will grow Toadstools, but not so good as otherwise they would be, if they had been nourished with a shower of rain.  Next we will show,

"How Sperage may be generated."

Dydimus, writes, that if any man would have good store of Sperage to grow, he must take the Horns of wild Ram, and beat them into very small powder, and sow them in eared ground, and water it, and he shall have his intent.  There is one that reports a more strange matter, that if you take whole Ram Horn not pounded into small pieces, but only cut a little, and make a hole in them, and so set them, they will bring forth Sperage.  Pliny is of Dydimus opinion, that if the Horns be pounded and dug into the earth, they will yield Sperage, though Dioscorides thinks it to be impossible.  And though I have made often trial hereof, but could not find it so to be, yet my friends have told me of their own experience, that the same tender seed that is contained within the Ram Horn, has produced Sperage.  The same my friends also have reported,

"That Ivy grows out of the Harts Horn,"

and Aristotle writes of an Husbandman that found such an experiment, though for my own part I never tried it.  But Theophrastus writes, that there was Ivy found growing in the Hart's Horn, whereas it is impossible to think how any Ivy seed could get in there.  And whereas some allege, that the Hart might have rubbed his Horn against some Ivy roots, and so some part of the Horn being soft and ready to Putrify, did receive into it some part of the root, and by this means it might there grow, this proposition carries no show of probability or credit with it.  But if these things be true, as I can say or see nothing to the contrary, then surely no man will deny but that diverse kinds of plants may be generated of divers kinds of living creatures Horns.  In like manner, may plants be generated of the Putrefied barks and boughs of old trees.  For so is,

"Polypody, and the Herb Hyphear generated;"

for both these, and diverse other plants also do grow up in the Fir trees and Pine trees, and such other.  For in many trees, near to the bark, there is a certain Phlegmatic or moist Humor, that is found to Putrify, which, when it abounds too much within, breaks forth into the outward show of the boughs and the stock of the tree, and there it meets with the Putrefied Humor of the bark, and the heat of the Sun working upon it there, quickly turns it into such kinds of Herbs.

Chapter II

"How Plants are changed, one of them Degenerating into the form of the other."

To work miracles, is nothing else (as I suppose) but to turn one thing into another, or to effect those things which are contrary to the ordinary course of nature.  It may be done by negligence, or by cunning handling and dressing them, that plants may forsake their own natural kind, and be quite turned into another kind, wholly Degenerating, both in taste, and color, and size and fashion.  And this I say may easily be done, either if you neglect to dress or handle them according to their kind, or else dress them more carefully and artificially then their own kind requires.  Furthermore, every plant has his proper manner, and peculiar kind of sowing or planting, for some must be sowed by seed, others planted by the whole stem, others set by some root, others Grafted by some Sprig or branch.  So that if that which should be sowed by seed, that which comes up will be of a diverse kind from that which grows usually, if it be planted according to its own nature, as Theophrastus writes.  Likewise if you shall change their place, their air, their ground, and such like, you pervert their kind, and you shall find that the young growing plant will resemble another kind, both in color and fashion, all which are clear cases by the books of Husbandry.  Some examples we will here rehearse.  If you would change,

"A White Vine into a Black, or a Black into a White,"

Sow the seed of a White Garden Vine, and that which comes of it, will be a Black Wild Vine, and so the seed of a Black Garden Vine will bring forth a White Garden Vine, as Theophrastus teaches.  The reason is, because a Vine is not sowed by seed, but the natural planting of it is by Sprigs and roots.  Wherefore if you deal with it otherwise then the kind requires, that which comes of it must needs be unkindly.  By the like means,

"A White Fig tree may Degenerate into a Black,"

for the Stone of a Fig, if it be set, never brings forth any other but a wild or a wood Fig tree, and such as most commonly is of a quite contrary color, so that of a white Fig tree it Degenerates into a black, and contrariwise a black Fig tree Degenerates into a white.  Sometimes also, of a right and noble Vine is generated a Bastard Vine, and that so different in kind often, that is has nothing of the right garden Vine, but all nearly wild.  In like manner also are changed,

"The Red Myrtle and the Red Bay tree into Black,"

and cannot choose but loose their color.  For these likewise Degenerate, as the same Theophrastus reports to have seen in Antandrus, for the Myrtle is not sown by seed, but planted by a Grafting, and the Bay tree is planted by a setting a little Sprig thereof that has in some part of the root, as we have shown in our discourse of Husbandry.  So also are,

"Sweet Almonds and Sweet Pomegranates changed into sour ones."

for the Stones or Kernels of the Pomegranates are changed from their right blue, into a baser color, and the Pomegranate itself, though it be never so good, Degenerates into a hard, and commonly a sharp fruit.  The Almond Degenerates likewise both in taste, and also in feeling, for of a soft one comes a harder.  Therefore we are counseled to Grafting him when he is prettily well grown, or else to change him and shift him off.  An Oak likewise will become worse.  And therefore whereas the best grows in Cyprus, and many have planted the same elsewhere, yet they could never produce the like of that.  In like manner, of the Kernel of the natural Olive comes a wild Olive, (and that they say that the male Cypress tree for the most part Degenerates into a female,) and in the process of time there is such a change, that it agrees in nothing with the natural Olive, but is so stark wild, that sometimes it cannot bring forth fruit to any perfection.  Varro says that,

"Coleworts are changed into Rape, and Rape into Coleworts ."

Old seed is of so great force in some things, that it quite changes the nature, for the old seed of Coleworts being sown, brings forth Rape, and contrariwise, old Rape-seed Degenerates into Coleworts , by labor also and dressing,

"The Corn Typha, and Spelt, are changed into Wheat, and Wheat into them,"

for this may be done, if you take them being of a thorough ripeness, and Knead them, and then plant them, but this will not so prove the first nor the second year, but you must expect the proof of it in the third year, as Theophrastus shows. Pliny writes, that the Corn Siligo is changed into Wheat the second year.  So all seeds, either by reason that they are neglected, or because there is some indisposition either in the earth, or the air where they are, do often Degenerate from the excellency and goodness of their kind, and become worse.  Virgil has observed it.  I have seen, says he, the best and choicest things that were most made of, at length yet to Degenerate, unless mans industry did yearly supply them with his help.  So fatal it is for all things to wax worse and worse, and still to have need to be renewed.  Galen's father, a man very studious of Husbandry, especially in his old age, bestowed great pains and diligence to find out, whether the annoyances of fruits, that which mars their pure goodness, did spring up of itself, or arise out of any seeds of the fruits themselves, which did Degenerate into other kinds.  Wherefore he took the purest and the cleanest Wheat and Barley that he could get, and having picked out all other seed whatsoever, sowed them in the ground.  And when he found much Tares growing in the Wheat, but very little in the Barley, he put the same experiment in other grain practice, and at last found in Pulse a hard and round Fetch, and moreover, that the Herb Axesceed did grow among Pulse , by a kind of Degeneration of the Pulse into Axesceed.  So, unless it be prevented by skill and pains,

"The Herb Ballamint will turn into a Mint,"

Wherefore it must be often shifted and translated from place to place, left it so Degenerate, as Theophrastus counsels, for when a man does not look to it and dress it, the roots thereof will grow very large, and thereby the upper part being weakened, losses the rankness of his favor, and that being lost, there remains in it but a weak smell, the very same in manner that is in a common Mint.  I myself have sowed Mint seed, and it has been changed into wild Pennyroyal, I mean, in favor only.  For the fashion of the Mint remained still in it.  Martial writes, that,

"Basil-royal Degenerates into wild Betony,"

if it be laid open to the Sun's hottest and greatest force.  For then it will bring forth sometimes purple flowers, sometimes white, and sometimes of a rosy color.  And it will not only Degenerate into Betony, but into Ballamint also.  Likewise the boughs of the shrub Casia, as Galen reports, will Degenerate into Cinnamon.  Likewise,

"Cloves, Roses, Violets, and Gilli-flowers, of purple, will become white,"

either by reason that they are old, or else if they be not well looked unto.  For Theophrastus records, that Violets, Roses, and Gilli-flowers, if they be not well heeded, in three years will wax white, and the experience thereof I myself have plainly seen.  Neither yet will plants Degenerate one into another, only in such case as where there is kind of vicinity and likeness of nature, but also where there is not such vicinity, one plant may be changed into another of a quite different kind.  For,

"An Oak may be changed into a Vine."

Albertus reports, (if the thing be as true as it is strange, but let the truth thereof lie upon his credit) he reports, I say, that Oak or Beech boughs being Grafted  into the Tree Myrica, is quite changed into it, and so into the tree called Tremisca, which is a baser kind of wood.  And likewise if Oak boughs be set in the ground of Allummun, a place so called, they will be quite altered into right Vines, such as their Grapes yield good Wine, and sometimes the old Oaks, if they be pared, Degenerate into Vines.  But we must not think that this change is made while those trees or boughs last, but when once they are Putrefied, and the nature of the ground works into them, and changes them into Vines.

Chapter III

"How to make one Fruit Compounded of many."

As we heard before of diverse living creatures, that they might be mingled into one, by Copulation, so now we will show also how to contrive diverse kinds of fruits, by Grafting into one fruit.  For Grafting is in plants the same that Copulation is in living creatures.  Yet I deny it not, but there are other means whereby this may be effected, as well as by Grafting.  But above all other, Grafting is most praiseworthy, as being the best and fittest means to incorporate one fruit into another, and so of many to make one, after a wonderful manner.  And whereas it may be thought a very toilsome, and indeed impossible matter, here the excellent effect of the work must sweeten all thy labor, and thy painful diligence will take away the supposed impossibility of the thing, and perform that which a man would think were not possible to be done.   Neither must thou suffer thyself to be discouraged herein by the sayings of rude Husbandman which have attempted this thing, but for want of skill could not perform it, seeing experience teaches you that it has been done.  Wherefore against such discouragement's, you must arm yourself with a due consideration of such experiments as the Ancients have recorded.  As for example, that the Fig tree may be incorporated into the Plane tree, and the Mulberry tree, and likewise the Mulberry tree into the Chestnut tree, the Turpentine tree, and the White Poplar, whereby you my procure White Mulberries, and likewise the Chestnut tree into a Hazel, and an Oak, and likewise the Pomegranate tree into all trees, for that it is like to a common Whore, ready and willing for all comers, and likewise the Cherry tree into a Turpentine tree.  And to conclude, that every tree may be mutually incorporated into each other, as Columella supposes.  And this is the cause of every composition of many fruits into one, of every adopted fruit which is not the natural child, as it were, of the tree that bore it. And this is the cause of all strange and new kinds of fruits that grow.  Virgil makes mention of such a matter, when he says, that Dido admired certain trees which she saw, that bare new kinds of leaves, and Apples that naturally were not their own.  And Palladius says, that trees are joined together as it were, by carnal Copulation, to the end that the fruit thereof might contain in it, all the excellencies of both the parents.  And the same trees were garnished with two sorts of leaves, and nourished with two sorts of juices, and the fruit had a double Relish, according to both the kinds whence it was Compounded.  But now, as we did in our tract of the Commixtion of diverse kinds of living creatures, so here also it is met to prescribe certain rules, whereby we may cause those diverse plants which we would intermingle, to join more easily, and to agree better together, for the producing of new and Compounded fruits.  First therefore, we must see that either of the trees have their bark of one and the same nature.  And both of them must have the same time of growing and shooting out of their Sprigs, as was required in living creatures, that both of them should have the same time of breeding their young ones.  For if the Graft has a dry or hard bark, and the stock has a moist or soft bark, or that they be in anyway contrary to each other, we shall labor in vain.  Then we must see that the Grafting be made in the purest and soundest place of the stock, so that it neither has any Tumors or knobs, or any scars, neither yet has been Grafted.  Again, it is very material, that the young Grafts or shoots be brought from the most convenient place or part of the trees, namely, from those boughs that grow toward the east, where the Sun is want to rise in the summer time.  Again, they must be of a fruitful kind, and be taken off from young plants, such as never bore fruit before.  They must also be taken in their prime, when they are beginning first to bud, and such as are of two years growth, and likely to bear fruit in their second year.  And the stocks into which they are to be Grafted, must likewise be as young as may be Grafted into, for if they be old, their hardness will scarce give any entertainment to strange shoots to be planted upon them.  And many such observations must be diligently looked into, as we have shown in our books of Husbandry.  But we must not here omit to speak of the Loam, or that clammy Mortar, which makes

"The Graft and the Stock to close more easily together."

for it is very helpful to glue or fasten the skins of both the barks one into the other.  And if the barks be of a diverse nature, yet by this Loam they may be so bound into one, that they will easily grow together.  And surely it is commodious in many respects.  First, because, as in mans body, the flesh being wounded or pierced into, is soon closed up again with stiff and clammy plasters, applied on them; so the bark or the boughs of trees being cut or rent, will close together again very speedily, by the applying of this Mortar.  For if you pull the bark off from a tree, or slip off a little Sprig from a bough, unless you close it up so cunningly, that it may stick as fitly every way in the Grafting as while it grew, it will soon wither, and fade, and lose the natural juice and moisture, which inconvenience this Loam will prevent, and fit them one into another.  Moreover, if there be any open chink between the bark and the tree, presently the air will get in, and will not suffer them to close, therefore to make it sure that they may close without fail, this Loam is needed.  And whereas there are some trees which cannot away to be harbored in any of another kind, this Loam will knit them so strongly into the stock, that they cannot but bud and blossom.  But here we must observe, that this Glue or Mortar must be as near of the nature of the thing Grafted as may be, for then it will perform this duty more kindly.  If you be diligent herein, you may do many matters.  We will give you a taste of some, that by these you may learn to do the like.  Pull off the bark of Holly, and make a pit in some moist ground, and there bury your Holly Vines, and let them there Putrify, which will be done in twelve days.  then take them forth, and stamp them till you see they are become a clammy slime.  This is also made of the fruit Sebesten in Syria, and likewise it may be made of ordinary Birdlime.  But the best of all is made of the Rinds of Elm roots stamped together, for this has a special quality, both to fasten and also to cherish.  But let us return to Grafting, which is of such great force, that it has caused a new kind of a Bastard fruit that was never heard of before, namely

"An Apple Compounded of a Peach-apple, and a Nut-peach,"

which kind of Compound generation, was never seen, nor heard of, nor yet thought upon by the ancient.  This is to be done by a kind of Grafting which they call Emplastering.  Take off two young fruitful Sprigs, one form a Peach-apple Tree, and the other from the Nut-peach Tree, but they must be well grown, and such as are ready to bud forth.  Then pare off the bark of them about two fingers breadth in compass, so that the bud to be Grafted may stand fitly in the midst between them both, but you must do it quickly, lest you perish the wood.  Then cleave them through the middle a little way, that they may be let one into another, and yet the cleft not seen, but covered with the bud.  Then take off a bud, and set it into the midst of the boughs which we spoke of before, and so Graft them together into the other tree, having first cut out a round fit place for them therein.  They must be Grafted in that part of the tree, which is most neat and fresh-colored, the Sprigs that grow about that place must be cut off, lest they draw the nourishment from the Graft, which requires it all for itself.  And when you have so done, bind it about gently, that you hurt it not, and cover it with something, so the rain does not fall down upon it, but especially take heed to the cleft, and place where you pulled off the bark, that you plaster it up well with Mortar. Thus if you do, the Graft will very kindly prosper, and the bud grow forth into a fruit that is Compounded of both kinds, and it shall carry the hue both of the Peach-apple and the Nut-peach by equal proportion, such as was never seen before.  By this means also we may procure the bring forth

"of a Fig half white and half black,"

for if we take the buds of each of them, paring them off together with the bark round about them, and then cut them in the middle, and put the half of one, and the half of the other together, and so Emplaister them into the tree, as we spoke of before, the fruit thereof will be a Fig half white and half black.  So also,

"Pomegranates may be brought forth, which will be sweet on the one side, and sour on the other,"

If you take either the shoots or the buds of each of them, and after you have divided them in the middle, put the half of each together, as before was spoken.  But this may be done best upon the shoots or Sprigs, for the bud can hardly be pared off, nor well divided, because the bark is so weak, and so thin, and slender, that it will not endure to be much or long handled.  Likewise,

"Oranges Compounded of divers kinds, and such as are half Lemons , as also lemons half sweet, and half sour, may be produced,"

if we mix them after the same manner as we spoke before, for these are very fit to be Grafted by Emplastering, and these kinds of Compound Oranges and Lemons are very commonly to be seen in many orchards in Naples.  In like manner we may mingle and Compound,

"A Peach of the white and the Red Peach,"

if we put those two kinds together, by such Emplastering.  For there are of this Compound fruit to be found in Naples at this day.  Likewise we may procure,

"A Grape that has a Kernel or Stone half black, and diversely colored,"

We must deal by the shoots of Vines, as we showed before was to be done by the buds of other trees, cleave them in the middle, and bind two shoots or more of diverse sorts of Vines handsomely together, that they may grow up in one, and Graft them into a fruitful Vine of some other kind.  And the same which we have shown concerning fruits, may be as well practiced also upon flowers.  As for example, If we would produce,

"Roses that are half white and half red,"

we must take the Sprigs of a white Rose, and of a red, and pare off the buds of each of them, and having cut them asunder in the middle, put the halves of each together, as we spoke of before, and Graft them artificially into the bark, and then have a diligent care still to cherish them, the Compound bud will in due season bring forth Roses which will be white of the one side and red of the other.  But if you would make trial hereof of Clove-gilli-flowers, and desire,

"To produce some that are half red,"

seeing they have no buds at all, you must practice this experiment upon their root.  You must take two roots of them, and cleave them in the middle, and match them fitly together, that they may grow each to other, and bind them up well, and then will they yield Compound Clove-gilli-flowers.  Of which kind we have great store, and they are common among us everywhere, and they do not only bring forth party-colored flowers, but the same bough, and one and the same Sprig, will bear white ones and red ones, and such as are wrought and as it were embroidered with diverse goodly colors, most pleasant to be seen.

Chapter IV

"Of a second means whereby fruits may be mingled and Compounded together"

There is also a second way of compounding diverse kinds of fruits together, namely, by another manner of Grafting.  As for example, if we would produce,

"Pomegranates Compounded of diverse kinds,"

Theophrastus shows us how to do it.  We must take the young slips or branches of divers kinds, and bruise them with a Beetle, so that they may stick and hang together, and then bind them up very hard each to other, and set them in the ground.  And if they be well laid together, all those slips will grow up jointly into one tree, but so, that every one of them retains his own kind, and receives his several nourishment from itself, and severally digests it.  And the chief community which they have all together, is their mutual embracing each of other.  The same Theophrastus teaches us in the same place,

"How one and the same Vine branch may bring forth a black and a white Grape both together, and how in the same Grape may be found a white and black Stone hanging together."

Take the branch of a white Vine, and another of the black, and the uppermost half of either of them must be bruised together, then you must match them equally and bind them up together, and plant them.  For by this means they will grow up both into one joint, for every living thing may be matched with another, especially where one is of the same or the like kind with the other.  For then if they be dissolved, as these are in some sort when they are bruised, their natures will easily close together, and be compact into one nature.  But yet either of these branches has his several nourishment by itself, without confusion of both together, whereby it comes to pass, that the fruit arising from them is of a diverse nature, according as either of the Sprigs requires.  Neither ought this to seem strange, that both of them concurring into one, should yet retain each of them their several kind, seeing the like hereof may be found in certain rivers which meet together by confluence into one and the same channel, and yet either of them keeps his own several course and passage, as do the rivers Cephisus and Melas in Boeotia.  Columella teaches us to do this thing on this manner.  There is, says he, a kind of Grafting, whereby such kind of Grapes are produced, as have Stones of diverse kinds, and sundry colors, which is to be done by this means.  Take four or five, or more (if you will) Vine branches of diverse kinds, and mingle them together by equal proportion, and so bind them up.  Afterward put them into an earthen pipe or a horn fast together, but so, that there may be some parts of them seen standing out a both ends, and those parts so standing forth, must be dissolved or bruised.  And when you have so done, put them into a trench in the ground, covering them with Muck, and watering them till they begin to bud.  And when the buds are grown fast together, after two or three years, when they are all knit and closed into one, then break the pipe, and near about the middle of the stalk beneath the sprouts, there where they seem to have most grown together, cut off the Vine, and heal that part where it is so cut, and then lay it under the ground again about three fingers deep.  And when that stalk shall shoot up into Sprigs, take two of the best of them, and cherish them and plant them into the ground, casting away all the other branches, and by this means you shall have such kinds of Grapes as you desire.  This very same experiment does Pliny set down, borrowing it from  Columella.  But Didymus prescribes it in this manner.  Take two Vine branches of diverse kinds, and cleave them in the middle, but with such heedful regard, that the cleft go as far as the bud is, and none of the Pith or juice be lost, then put them each to other, and close them together, so that the bud of either of them meet right one with the other.  And as much as possibly may be, let them touch together, whereby both those buds may become as one.  Then bind up the branches with paper as hard together as you can, and cover them over with the Sea-onion, or else with some very stiff clammy earth, and so plant them, and water them after four or five days, so long till they shoot forth into a perfect bud.  If you would produce,

"A Fig, that is half white and half red,"

Leontinus teaches you to do it after this manner.   Take two shoots of diverse kinds of Fig trees, but you must see that both the shoots be of the same age, and the same growth as near as you can.  Then lay them in a trench, and put Dung on them, and water them.  And after they begin to bud, you must rake the buds of each, and bind them up together, so that they may grow up into one stalk.  And about two years after, take them up, and plant them into another stock, and thereby you shall have Figs of two colors.  So then by this means,

"All fruits may be made to be party-colored,"

and that not only of two, but of many colors, accordingly as many kinds of fruits may be Compounded together.  And surely these experiments are very true, though they be somewhat hard to be done, and require a long times practice, as I myself have had experience.  The like experiment to these is recorded by Palladius, and by other Greek writers, who show the way,

"How a Vine may bring forth clusters of Grapes that are white, but the Stones of the Grapes black." 

If white and black Vines grow near together, you must shred the branches of each, and presently clap them together so, that the bud of either may meet right together, and so become one.  Then bind them up hard in paper, and cover them with soft and moist earth, and so let them lie three days or thereabouts.  After that , see that they be well and fitly matched together, and then let them lie till a new bud come forth of a fresh Head.  And by this means you shall procure in time, diverse kinds of Grapes, according to the diverse branches you put together.  I myself have cleft or cut them off in that place where the buds were shooting forth, leaving the third part of the bud upon the branch, I fastened them together, and bound them up into one very fast, left when the buds should wax greater, one of them might fly off from the other.  I fitted them so well, branch with branch, and bud with bud, that they made but one stalk, and the very same year they brought forth Grapes that had cloven Kernels or Stones.  This shoot so springing up, I put to another, and when that was so sprung up, I put that also to another, and by this continual fitting of diverse springs one to another, I produced clusters of diverse-colored and diverse-natured Grapes.  For one and the same Grape was sweet and unsavory, and the Stones were some long, some round, some crooked, but all of them were of diverse colors.  Pontanus has elegantly shown ,

"How Citron-trees may bear diverse kinds,"

namely, by joining two sundry boughs together, after the bark has been pared away, and fastening each to other with a kind of glue, that they may grow up one as fast as the other, and when they are Grafted into one stock, they must be very carefully covered and looked unto, and so one and the same branch will bring forth fruit of diverse kinds.  So you may procure,

"An Orange Tree to bring forth an Apple half sweet and half sour."

And this kind of commixtion was invented by chance, for there were Grafted two boughs of Orange trees, one brought forth a sweet, and the other a sharp fruit.  When occasion served to transplant and remove the tree, it was cut off in the middle, according as husbandmen are found to do when they plant such trees after they are grown old, and by great chance, it was cut off there were the two boughs had been before Grafted.  And so when the stock budded afresh, there arose one bud out of the sharp and sweet branches both together as they were left in the stock, and this one bud brought forth apples or fruit of both Relishes.  Wherefore no question but such a thing may be effected by art, as well as it was by chance, if any man have a mind to produce such kind of fruits.

Chapter V

"Of a third way, whereby diverse kinds of fruits may be Compounded together."

We will also set down a third way, whereby we may mingle and Compound diverse kinds of fruits together.   A way which has been delivered unto us by the Ancients, though for my own part I think it to be not only a very hard, but even an impossible matter.  Notwithstanding, because grave ancient writers have set it down, I cannot scorn here to rehearse it.  And though I have put it in practice, but to no purpose, for it has not so fallen out as they write, yet I will not discourage any man that has a mind to make trial hereof, for it may be that fortune will second their endeavors better then she did mine.  The way is this, to gather many seeds of sundry trees and fruits, and wrapping them up together, so to sow them.  And when they are grown up into stalks, to bind all the stalks together, that they may not lie asunder, but rather grow up all into one tree, and this tree will bring forth diverse kinds of fruits, yes and one and the same fruit will be mingled and Compounded of many.  It should seem that the authors of this experiment, learned it first out of Theophrastus, who writes, that, if you sow two diverse seeds near together within a hands breadth, and then sow two other diverse seeds a little above them, the roots which will come of all these seeds will lovingly embrace and wind about each other, and so grow up into one stalk, and be incorporated one into another.  But special care must be had how the seeds be placed, for they must be set with the little end upward, because the bud comes not out of the low and hollow parts, but out of the highest, and there are four seeds required, because so many will easily and fitly close together.  A matter, which if it were true, it might be a very ready means which would produce exceeding many and wonderful experiments, By such a means,

"Berries that are party-colored may be produced."

If you take a great many berries, white, and black, and red, one amongst another, and sow them in the earth together, and when they are shot up, bind all their stalks into one, they will grow together, and yield party colored berries.  Pliny writes, that this way was devised from the birds.  Nature, says he, has taught how to Graft with a seed.  For hungry birds have devoured seeds, and having moistened and warmed them in their bellies, a little after have Dunged in the forky twists of trees, and together with their Dung excluded the seed whole which erst they had swallowed.  And sometimes it brings forth there where they Dung it, and sometimes the wind carries it away into some chinks of the barks of trees, and there it brings froth.  This is the reason why many times we see a Cherry tree growing in a Willow, A Plane tree in a Bay tree, and a Bay in a Cherry tree, and withal, that the berries of them have been party-colored.  They write also, that the Jackdaw hiding certain seeds in some secret chinks or holes, did give occasion of this invention.  By the selfsame means we may produce,

"A Fig that is partly white and partly red."

.Leontinus attempts the doing of this, by taking the Kernels or Stones that are in a Fig somewhat inclinable to this variety, and wrapping them up together in a Linen cloth, and then sowing them, and when need requires, removing them into another place.  If we would have,

"An Orange or Citron Tree bear diverse Apples of diverse Relishes,"

Pontanus, our country-man, in his work of gardening, has elegantly taught us how to do it.  We must take sundry seeds of them, and put them into a pitcher, and by this means they will grow up into one stock, and shroud themselves all under one bark.  But you must take heed that the wind does not come at them to blow them asunder, but cover them over with some wax, that they may stick fast together, and let them be well plastered with Mortar about the bark.  And so shall you gather from them in time very strange Apples of sundry Relishes.  Likewise we may procure,

"A Damosin, and an Orange or Lemon to be mixed together."

In our books of Husbandry, we have shown at large, but many reasons alleged to and fro, that sundry seeds could not possibly grow into one, but all that is written in favor of this practice, is utterly false, and altogether impossible.  But this experiment we ourselves have proved, whereby diverse kinds of Damosins are mixed together.  While the Damosin trees were very tender and dainty, we fastened two of them together, which were planted near to each other, as sailors plat and tie their cables.  But first we pared off the bark to the inmost skin, in that place where they should touch each other, that so one living thing might the more easily grow to the other.  Then we bound them up gently with thin lifts, made of the inner bark of elm, or such like stuff that is soft and pliable fur such a purpose, lest they should be parted and grow asunder, and if any part of them were so limber that it would not stick fast, we wedged it in with splints, yet not too hard, for fear of spoiling it.  Then we rid away the earth from the upper roots, and covered them with Muck, and watered them often, that by this cherishing and tilling on, they might grow up the better.  And thus after a few years that they were grown together into one tree, we cut off the tops of them about that place where they most seemed to be knot together, and about those tops there sprung up many buds, whereof, and the rest we cut away, and by this means we produced such kind of fruit as we speak of, very goodly, and much commended.  And concerning lemons, I have seen some in the noblemen gardens of Naples, which, partly by continual watering at seasonable times, and partly by reason of the tenderness and the rankness of the boughs, did so cling and grow together, that they became one tree, and this one tree brought forth fruit Compounded of either kind.  We may also conveniently cherish up with continual watering, and perform other services towards them which are necessary for their growth.  And as it may be done by lemons, so we have seen the same experiment practiced upon mulberry trees, which growing in moist and shadowed places, as soon as their boughs closed one with another, presently they grew into one, and brought forth berries of sundry colors.  If we would procure that,

"A Lettuce should grow, having in it Parsley, and Rotchet, and Basil-gentle,"

or any such like commixtion, we must take the Dung of a Sheep or a Goat, and though it be but a small substance, yet you must make a shift to bore the Truttle through the middle, and as well as you can, get out the inmost Pith, and instead hereof put into it those seeds which you desire to have mingled together, packing them in as hard as the Truttle will bear it.  And when you have so done, lay it in the ground about two handful deep, with Dung and hollow near, both under it, and round about it, then cover it with a little thin earth, and water it a little and a little, and when the seeds also are sprung forth, you must still apply them with water and Dung, and after they are grown up into a stalk, you must be more diligent about them, and by this means at length there will arise a lettuce, mixed and Compounded with all those seeds.  Palladius prescribes the same more precisely.  If you take, says he, a Truttle of Goats Dung , and bore it through, and make it hollow cunningly with a Bodkin, and then fill it up with the seed of Lettuce, Cresses, Basil, Rotchet, and Radish, and when you have so done, lap them up in more of the same Dung, and bury them in a little trench of such ground as is fruitful and well manured for such a purpose, the Radish will grow downward into a root, the other sees will grow upward into a stalk, and the Lettuce will contain them all, yielding the several Relish of every one of them.  Others effect this experiment on this manner.  They pluck off the Lettuce leaves that grow next to the root, and make holes in the thickest substance and veins thereof, one hole being a reasonable distance from the other, where they then put in the before mentioned seeds, all but the Radish seed, and cover them about with Dung, and then lay them under the ground, whereby the lettuce grows up, guarded by the stalks of so many Herbs as there were seeds put into the leaves.  If you would procure,

"Party-colored flowers to grow,"

you may effect it by the same ground and principle.  You must take the seeds of diverse kinds of flowers, and when you have bound them up in a Linen cloth, set them in the ground, and by the commixtion of those seeds together, you shall have flowers that are party-colored.  By this means, it is thought that Daisies of diverse kinds were first brought forth, such as are to be seen with golden leaves, reddish about the edge, nay, some of them are so meddled with diverse colors, that they resemble little shreds of silk patched together.

Chapter VI

"How a double fruit may be made, whereof the one is contained within the other."

There is also another way of composition, whereby fruits may be so meddled together, not as we have shown before, that one part of it should be of one fruit, and the other part of another kind, nor yet that one and the same bough shall at once bear two or three kinds of fruits, but that one and the same fruit shall be double, containing in itself two kinds, as if they were but one, whereof I myself have first made trial.  But let us see how the Ancients have effected this.  And first,

"How to make an Olive-Grape."

Diophanes shows that the Olive being Grafting into the Vine, brings forth a fruit called Elaeo-staphylon, that is to say, an Olive-grape.  But Florentinus in the eleventh book of his Georgicks, has shown the manner how to Graft the Olive into a Vine, that so it shall bring forth not only bunches or clusters of Grapes, but an Olive fruit also.  We must bore a hole through the Vine near to the ground, and put into it the branch of an Olive tree, that so it may draw and receive both from the Vine, sweetness, and also from the ground, natural juice and moisture, whereby it may be nourished.  For so will the fruit taste pleasant.  And moreover, if, while the Vine has not yet born fruit, you take the fruitful spring thereof, and plant them elsewhere, these Sprigs will retain the mixture and composition of the Vine and the Olive tree together, and bring forth one fruit that shall have in it both kinds, which therefore is called by a name Compounded of both their names, Elaeo-staphylon, and Olive-grape.  He reports that he say such a tree in the orchard of Marius Maximus, and tasting the fruit thereof, he thought with himself that he felt the Relish of an Olive berry and a Grape Kernel both together.  He writes also that such plants grow in Africa, and are there called by a proper name in the country language Ubolima.  But we must set props under them, to bear up the weight and burden of the boughs.  Though if we Graft them any other way but this, we shall need no poles at all.  I suppose also that by this self-same means it may be effected,

"That a Grape should have Myrtle in it."

Tarentinus writes, that the Vine may be Grafting into the Myrtle tree, and the Vine branches thereon Grafted, will bring forth Grapes that have myrtle berries growing underneath them.  But the manner of these Grafting he has not set down.  If you Graft the Vine branches in the higher boughs or arms of the Myrtle, then they will bring forth Grapes after their ordinary manner, not having any myrtle in them.  But if you Graft them as he showed before, near to the ground, as the Olive tree must be into the Vine, then you may produce Myrtle Grapes, though not without some difficulty.  We may likewise produce,

"Damosins that shall be of the color of Nuts."

for such kind of fruit were produced by the Ancients, and called Nucipruna, that is, Nut-damosins, as Pliny reports.  It is a peculiar property of these fruits that are Grafted into Nut trees, that they are in color like to their own kind, but in taste like unto Nuts, being therefore called by a mixed name, Nucipruna.  So there may be produced, as the same Pliny writes,

"Damosins that have sweet Almonds within them."

There is, says he, in this kind of fruit an Almond Kernel, neither can there be any prettier double fruit devised.  The same Pliny reports also, that there is a kind of

"Damosin that has in it the substance of an Apple,"

which of late was called by the Spaniards Malina, which come of a Damosin Grafted into an Apple tree.  There is also a kind of fruit called by the Apothecaries, Sebesten,

"Mixa, which has in it a sweet Almond."

This same Mixa is a kind of Damosin, which differs from all others, for whereas others have a bitter Almond or Kernel within their Stone, this only has a sweet Kernel.  It is a plant peculiar to Syria and Egypt, though in Pliny's time it was common in Italy, and was Grafted in the Service tree, whereby the Kernel was pleasanter.  They Grafted it into the Service tree, likely for this cause, that whereas the fruit of itself would make a man Laxative, the sharp taste of the Service tree being mixed with it, might cause it to be more binding. But now we will show,

"How to produce an Almond-peach, which outwardly is a Peach, but with has an Almond Kernel."

The former means producing double fruits, which the Ancients have recorded, are but vain fables, not only false matters, but indeed impossible to be so done, for, we have shown in the book of Husbandry, if you Graft the Vine into the Myrtle, there will be no such fruit brought forth after that manner.  Besides, it is impossible to Graft the Olive tree into the Vine, or it were Grafted, yet would it not bring forth any such Grapes.  Pliny speaks of Apple-damosins, and Nut-damosins, but he showed not the manner how they may be produced, happily, because it was never seen nor known.  But we will demonstrate the manner of it to the whole world, by this example.  This fruit is called and Almond-peach by the late writers, because it bears in it self the nature, both of the almond and the Peach Compounded together.  And it is a new kind of adultery or commixtion, wrought by skill and diligence used in Grafting, such a fruit as was never heard of in former ages, partaking both of the shape, and also of the qualities of either parent.  Outwardly it resembles the Peach both in shape and color, but inwardly it has a sweet Almond with the Kernels that both looks and tastes like an Almond, and so is the tree also a middle between the Almond tee and the Peach tree.  The manner of Grafting is, by clapping the bud of one upon the bud of another, either upon one of the trees that bare one of the buds, or else setting them both into a third tree, as we have done when the trees have been old.  We may also go farther, and upon that branch wherein those two buds grow up together, we may set a third bud, and so the fruit will be threefold.  These trees we had growing in our own orchards many years together.  By this self same means we my produce a very strange Apple, the wonderfullness will ravish our senses and our thoughts, namely

"A Citron that has a Lemon in the inn parts,"

and this, I say, we may produce by laying the bud of a Citron upon the bud of a Lemon.  And the most of those kinds are to be found among the Brutii, a people dwelling near Naples, and the Surrentines in Campania, and these fruits proceed from the tart juice that is within the branch.  In like manner,

"A double Orange may be produced,"

which kind of fruit is common with us, wherein are double ranks of Kernels in such rare proportion, that you would wonder and be amazed to see.

Chapter VII

"Of another device, whereby strange fruits may be generated, and made either better or worse."

Concerning the praises and excellency of Grafting, we have spoken elsewhere more at large.  Here it shall suffice only to show, that by Grafting, new fruits may be produced, some better, and some worse then their ordinary kinds.  We will relate some experiments of our own, and  some which the Ancients have found out.  And first,

"How to produce a Chestnut of the best."

There is one rare example hereof not to be omitted.  Corellius, a nobleman of Rome, born at the city of Areste, Grafted a Chestnut upon a Chestnut branch in the country of Naples, and so produced a Chestnut called Corelliana, after his name.  After that, his heir, whom he made a free-man, Grafted the same Corelliana upon another tree.  The difference between them both is this, that the former is a larger Chestnut, but this latter is a better fruit.  These things have been done by the Ancients.  And the good that comes by Grafting is such, as that if anything be Grafted into the stock or branch of its own kind, the fruit will thereby be made better.  The cherry tree is very kindly to be Grafted.  And you shall scarce ever have a good and a sweet Cherry, unless it be by Grafting upon some other tree, as Pamphilus reports.  By the precedent of this example, we have endeavored to change,

"The Barbery Tree into the tree called Tuber."

for I take it, that the Oxyacantha, or the Barbery Tree, is nothing else but a Bastard, or a wild Tuber. and therefore if a man follow that example of  Corellius, and Graft the Oxyacantha often into the branch or stock, it will be much bettered, and become the Tuber tree.  As also on the other side, the Tuber tree, if it be not dressed and looked unto, does Degenerate into the Barbery Tree.  I myself have Grafted it three or four times into the branches of its own kind, in my own orchard, and if I live so long, I will still Graft it so, till it does bring forth tubers, for I find that it brings forth already, both greater and sweeter berries.  Now we will speak of such fruits, as are Grafted not into their own branches, but into branches of another kind, which contain in them both the fashion and the properties of either kind.  And we will teach the manner how to Compound a new kind of fruit lately devised, namely,

"A Peach-nut, mixed of a Nut and a Peach."

There is a kind of Peach called a Peach-nut, which the Ancients never knew of, but has lately been produced by pains taken in Grafting, as I myself have seen.  It bears the name and the form also of both the parents whereof it is generated, having a green color like a Nut, and has no Moss down on the outside, but very smooth all over, the taste of it is sharp and somewhat bitter, it is long before it becomes ripe, and is of a hard substance like a Peach.  That part of it which lies against the Sun is reddish, it smells very well, it has within, a rough Stone, and hard like a Peach Stone.  It has a pleasant Relish, but the Apple will not last so long as the Nut, or Kernel within.  Which kind of fruit cannot be supposed to have been otherwise brought forth then by diverse Grafts of the Peach into the Nut tree, one year after another.  We may also better the fruits by Grafting them into better trees.  Diophanes produced

"Citron-apples Compounded of an Apple and a Citron."

for he Grafted an Apple into the Citron tree, and that often, but it withered as soon as ever it did shoot forth.  However, at length it took fast hold, and became a Citron-apples tree.  Anatolius and  Diophanes made a Compound fruit called

"Melimela, of an Apple and a Quince mixed together. " 

for if we Graft an Apple into a Quince tree, the tree will yield a very good Apple, which the Athenians call Melimelum, but we call it a St. Johns Apple.  Pliny writes, that an ordinary Quince, and a Quince-pear Compounded,

"Produce a fruit called Milvianum."

The Quince, says he, being Grafted into a Quince-pear, yields a kind of fruit called Milvianum, which alone of all other Quinces is to be eaten raw.  Now as we have shown how to make fruits better by Grafting, both for show and for properties, we will declare also, how by Grafting,

"Fruits may be made worse,"

We will show it first by a Pear.  Marcus Varro says, that if you Graft a very good Pear into a wild Pear tree, it will not taste so well as that which is Grafted into an orchard Pear tree.  If you Graft a peach into a Damosin tree, the fruit of it will be much less.  If into a bitter Almond tree, the fruit will have a bitter Relish.  Likewise if you Graft a Chestnut into a Willow, and be somewhat a latter fruit, the taste of it will be more bitter.  And so if you Graft an apple into a Damosin tree, the fruit which it yields, will neither be so great, nor yet so good, as it is in its own kind.

Chapter VIII

"...How to procure ripe fruits and flowers before their ordinary season..."

Art being as it were natures Ape, even in her imitation of nature, effects greater matters then nature does.  Hence it is that a Magician being furnished with art, as it were another nature, searching thoroughly in those works which nature does accomplish by many secret means and close operations, does work upon nature, and partly by that which he sees, and partly by that which he conjects and gathers from thence, takes his sundry advantages of nature's instruments, and thereby either hastens or hinders her work, making things ripe before or after their natural season, and so indeed makes nature to be his instrument.  He knows that fruits, and flowers, and all other growing things that the world affords, are produced by the circuit and motion of Celestial bodies, and therefore when he is disposed to hinder the ripening of any thing, or else to help it forward, that it may be more rare and of better worth, he effects it by Counterfeiting the times and seasons of the year, making the winter to be as summer, and springtime as the winter.  Among other means, Grafting is not a little helpful hereunto.  Now let us see, how we may by Grafting,

"Produce Grapes in the Spring-time."

If we see a Cherry tree bring forth her fruit in the springtime, and we desire to have Grapes about that time, there is a fit opportunity of attaining our desire, as Tarentinus writes.  If you Graft a black Vine into the cherry tree, you shall have Grapes growing in the springtime.  For the tree will bring forth Grapes the very same season, the same as when it would bring forth her own fruit.  But this Grafting cannot be done without boring a hole into the stock, as Didymus shows us.  You must bore the Cherry tree stock through with a Wimble, and, your Vine growing by it, you must take one of the next and best branches from it, and put it into the Auger hole, but you must not cut it off from the Vine, but place it in its own mother the Vine, and also as being made partaker of the juice of that tree into which it is Grafted.  This Sprig within the compass of two years, will grow and be incorporated into the Cherry tree.  About which time, after the scar is grown over again, you must cut off the branch from the Vine, and saw off the stock of the Cherry tree upon which it is Grafted, all above the boring place, and let the Vine branch grow up in the rest.  For so shall neither the Vine be idle, but still bring forth her own fruit, and that branch also which was Grafted does grow up together with it, being nothing hurt by that Grafting.  We may also by the help of Grafting procure,

"A Rose to Show forth her buds before her time."

If we pluck off a Rose bud from the mother, and Graft by such an Emplastering as we spoke of before, the same into the open bark of an almond tree, at such time, as the almond tree does bud, the Rose so Grafted, will bring forth her own flowers out of the almond bark.  But because it is a very hard matter to Graft into an Herb, and therefore we can hardly produce flowers sooner then their time by that means, we will show another means here, and namely,

"How Cucumbers may hasten their fruits."

Columella found in Dolus Mendefius an Egyptian, an easy way whereby this may be done.  You must set in your garden in some shadowy place well Dunged, a rank of Fennel , and a rank of Brambles one within another, and after the Aquinoetial day, cut them off a little with the ground, and having first loosed the Pith of either of them with a wooden Punch, to convey Dung into them, and withal to Graft in them Cucumber seeds, which may grow up together with the Fennel and the Brambles.  For by this means the seeds will receive nourishment from the root of the stalk into which they are Grafted, and so you shall have Cucumbers very soon.  But now let us show how we may accomplish this thing by Counterfeiting as it were the seasons of the year.  And first, how we may procure that,

"Cucumbers shall be ripe very timely."

The Quintiles say you must take Panniers or earthen pots, and put into them some fine sifted earth mixed with Dung, that it may be somewhat liquid, and preventing the ordinary season, you must plant therein Cucumber seeds about the beginning of spring, and when the Sun shines, or that there is any heat or rain, they bring the Panniers forth into the air, and about Sun setting they bring them into a closed house, and this they do daily, still watering them as occasion serves.  But after that the cold and the frost is ceased, and the air is more temperate, they take their Panniers and dig a place for them in some well tilled ground, and there set them, so that the brims of them are even with the earth, and then look well to them, and you shall have your desire.   The like may be done by Gourds.  Theophrastus shows us, that if a man sow Cucumber seeds in the wintertime, and water them with warm water, and lay them in the Sun, or else by the fire, and when seed time comes, put the whole Panniers of them into the ground, they will yield very timely Cucumbers, long before their ordinary season is to grow.  Columella says, that Tiberius the Emperor took great delight in the Cucumbers that were thus ripened, which he had at all times of the year, for his gardeners every day drew forth their hanging gardens into the Sun upon wheels, and when any great cold or rain came, they straight away carried them in again into their close Hovels made for the same purpose.  Didymus shows, 

"Roses may bud forth, even before Winter be past."

If they be used after the like manner, namely, if you set them in Hampers or earthen vessels, and carefully look unto them, and use them as you would use Gourds and Cucumbers, to make them ripe before their ordinary season.  Pliny shows,

"How to make Figs that were of last years growth, to be ripe very soon the next year after,"

And this is by keeping them from the cold also, but yet the device and practice is not all one with the former.  There are, says he, in certain countries, as in Maefia, winter Fig trees, (a small tree it is, and such as is more beholding to art then to nature) which they use in this manner.  After the Autumn or Fall, they lay them in the earth, and cover them all over with Muck, and the green Figs that grew upon them in the beginning of winter are also buried upon the tree with them.  Now when the Winter is past and the air is somewhat calmer the year following, they dig up the trees again with the fruit upon them, which presently do embrace the heat of a new Sun as it were, and grow up by the temperature of another year, as kindly as if they had then newly sprung up.  Then it comes to pass, that though the country is very cold, yet there they have ripe Figs of two years growth as it were, even before other Fig trees can so much as blossom. But because we cannot so well practice these experiments in the broad and open fields, either by hindering, or by helping the temperature of the air, therefore we will try to ripen fruit and flowers before their time, by laying warm Cherishers, as Lime, or Chalk, and Nitre, and warm water, to the roots of trees and Herbs.  If you would have,

"A Cherry ripe before his time,"

Pliny says, that you must lay Chalk or Lime to the root of the tree before it begins to blossom, or else you must often pour hot water upon the root, and by either of these means you may procure the ripening of Cherries before their time.  However, the tree will dry and wither away.  If you would procure the ripening,

"Of a Rose before his time,"

Dydimus says you may effect it by covering the Rose bush with earth, a foot above the root of it, and there pour in warm water upon it, when the slip begins to  shoot up, and before any blossom appears.  Likewise if you would have,

"A Vine to bring forth before her time,"

You must take Nitre, and pound it down, and mix it with water, so that it be made of the thickness of Honey.  And as soon as you have pruned the Vine, lay good store of your Nitre upon the Vine buds, and so shall your buds shoot forth within nine days after.  But to procure the Grapes to be timely ripe, you must take the mother of the Wine before it is sour, and lay the same upon the root of the plants when you set them, for at that time it is best so to use them, as Tarentinus and Florentinus both affirm.  Moreover, if you would have anything to bud forth very timely, Theophrastus says you may procure it by setting the same,

"Into the Sea-onion."

for if a Fig tree be set but near it, it will cause the speedy ripening of Figs.  And to be brief, there is nothing set in the Sea-onion, but will more easily and speedily shoot forth, by reason of the strong inward heat which that Herb is endued withal.  Democritus shows another means, whereby you may cause,

"The Fig tree to bring forth hasty Figs,"

Namely, by applying the same with Pepper and Oil, and Pigeon's Dung.  Florentinus would have the Dung and the Oil to be laid upon the Figs when they be raw and green.  Palladius counsels, that when the Figs begin to wax somewhat red, you should then besmear them with the juice of a long Onion mixed with Pepper  and Oil, and so the Figs will sooner ripen.  Our practice is this, when the Figs begin to wax ripe, we take a wooden Needle, and anoint it over with Oil, and so thrust it through both ends of the Figs, whereby in a few days the fruit is ripened.  Other effect this by heaping up a great many Ram Horns about the root of the tree.  Pliny shows,

"How to make Coleworts branch before their time,"

And this is by laying good store of Sea Grass about it, held up with little props, or else by laying upon it black Nitre, as much as you can take up with three fingers, or thereabouts, for this will hasten the ripening thereof.  We may also cause,

"Parsley to come up before his time."

Pliny says, that if you sprinkle hot water upon it, as it begins to grow, it will shoot up very swiftly.  And  Palladius says, that if you pour Vinegar upon it by little and little, it will grow up, or else if you cherish it with warm water as soon as ever it is sown.  But the mind of man is so bold to enter in the very secret bowels of nature, by the diligent search of experience, that it has devised to bring forth,

"Parsley exceedingly timely."

It grows up easily of itself, for within fifty or forty days it is found to appear out of the earth, as Theophrastus and other affirm, as by their writings may be seen.  Our countrymen call it Perroselinum.  In the practicing of this experiment, you must show yourself a painful workman, for if you fail, or commit never so small an error herein, you will miss your purpose.  You must take Parsley seeds that are not fully one year old, and in the beginning of summer you must dip them in the Vinegar, suffering them to lie a while in some warm place.  Then wrap up the seeds in some small loose earth, which for this purpose you have before meddled with the ashes of burnt Bean straw.  There you must sprinkle them often with a little warm water, and cover them with some cloth, that the heat does not leave them.  So will they in short time appear out of the earth.  Then remove the cloth away, and water them still, and thereby the stalk will grow up in length, to the great admiration of beholders.  But in any case, you must be painful and very diligent, for I have studied it, and by reason of some error and negligence, I obtained not my desire.  However, many of my friends having made diligent trial of this procedure, found it to be a very true experiment.  Likewise may,

"Lentils be hastened in their growth,"

If they be smeared over with dry Ox Dung, a little before they are sown, but they had need lie in that dung four or five days before they be cast into the ground.  So,

"Melons may be hastened in their fruit,"

For if in the wintertime you lay a parcel of earth in mixtures that are made of hot Dung, and in the same earth sow Melons seeds, the heat of the Dung will cause them soon to sprout forth.  You must keep them warm with some covering, from the snow, and the cold of night, and afterward when the air is more calm, you must plant them in some other place.  For by this means we have hastened the fruit hereof.  And by this same device of preventing their seed time, we may cause,

"Cucumbers to hasten their fruit."

But Theophrastus sets down another practice.  Cucumber roots, if they be carefully looked into, will live long.  Therefore if a man cuts off a  Cucumber close by the ground, after it has brought forth fruit, and then cover the roots over with earth, the very same roots the year following will bring forth very timely fruit, even before others that were most seasonably sown.  Theophrastus also sets down another way,

"Of Hastening Cucumbers,"

And that is by Macerating the seed before it be sown, or else by supplying it with continual moisture after it is sown.  So also we may procure,

"Peas or Vitches to be timely ripe,"

If we sow them before their ordinary season in Barley time, as  Florentinus shows.  But Theophrastus says this may be done by macerating them in the water before seed-time, but especially if you Macerate them shells and all.  For there is but a little of it will turn to Putrefaction, and the shell feeds the Kernel well at the first, however afterward it turns to nothing.  The same Theophrastus shows also,

"How the Rape-root may be hastened in growth."

If the gardener, says he, does hide the same in a heap of earth, it will cause it to bring forth very timely fruit the year following.  There may be other fruits also be timely ripened, as,

"A Quince may be hastened in ripening,"

If you daily sprinkle them with continual moisture, as Palladius shows, and Democritus says, you may have,

"Roses growing in the month of January."

If you water the slip twice a day in the summertime.  We may likewise procure that,

"Gourds shall bring forth very timely."

By propping up and holding up their young tender Sprigs.  In like manner we may cause,

"The Forward Fig tree to hasten her fruits,"

By renting or scarifying the body of the tree, that the milky juice may there swell and issue out of it, that when the superfluous Humor is gone forth, that which is left behind, may be the more easily Concocted, and so the fruit will be sooner ripened.  To be short we may procure,

"The timely ripening of all kinds of Fruit."

If we sow or plant them in some place where they may lie still opposite against the Sun, or it we put them into certain vessels made for the same purpose, and still water them with warm water, and let them lie continually in the Sun.  And if we would have them to hasten their fruit very speedily, we should have an oven made under those vessels, that so by reason of a double warmth, one from above, and the other from beneath the fruit may more speedily be produced.  And surely this is the only cause, why fruits and flowers are more forward and sooner ripe in the country Puteoli, and the Island Inarime, then in all other places of Campania, because there they hasten the Concoction and ripening of them, by cherishing the roots thereof with fire and heat within the earth.

Chapter IX

"How we may have Fruits and Flowers at all times of the Year."

By these ways of procuring fruit to be timely ripe, it may be effected, that we shall have fruits and flowers at all times of the year, some very forward that come before their ordinary season, and some later that come after.  As for their own time, then, Nature of herself affords them unto us.  Aristotle in his Problems shows,

"How we may have Cucumbers all the year long, "

Both in season and out of season.  When they are ripe, says he, you must put them into a watery ditch, near the place where they grow, and cover it over.  By this means the heat of the Sun cannot come at them to dry them, and the wetness of the place will keep them supple and moist, so that they will still be fresh and green.  And Theophrastus after him says the like, that Gourds and Cucumbers must be taken when they are small, and in their tender growth, and must be hidden in some ditch,  where the Sun cannot come to waste and consume their moisture, nor the wind to dry them, which two things would mar and hinder their growth, as we see when it falls from a tree, that they are so situated, as both the wind and the Sun have their full scope upon them.  If you would have,

"Citron Trees bear fruit all the year,"

To have Citrons still growing fresh upon the tree, you must observe that manner and custom which was first peculiar in Assyria, but is now usual in many places.  When their season is to be gathered, you must cut off some of the fruit from the tree, and prune those parts well where you have left no fruit, but you must leave some behind, upon some other parts of the tree.  So shall you find a new supply of fresh fruit there where you cut off the former, and when these be ripe, then cut off those which you left upon the tree before, and so fresh fruit will also come up in their stead.  Pontanus has set down the same experiment in verse,  for so it will come to pass, that the tree will bud forth afresh in those parts where it finds itself destitute of fruit, grieving as it were that one bough should be beautified with fruit, and the other should have none at all.  We may also effect this by the help of Grafting.  For if we desire,

"To have Apples all the year,"

Dydimus in his Georgics says, that if we Graft an Apples into a Citron tree, it will bring forth for the most part continual fruit.  And if we would have,

"Artichokes grow continually,"

We may learn to do it out of Cassianus, who following the authority of Varro, says, that Artichokes always bring forth fruit about the same season that they are set in, and therefore it is easy to have them all year long.  The ordinary season of planting Artichokes is in November and September, and commonly they bear fruit in July and August.  But they will bring forth also in March and April, if they be planted accordingly, for by that time they will have as perfect a soul, as at any time else.  If you practice it three years together, plant them in the months of November, December, January, February, and March, you shall have Artichokes of that kind, as will bring forth fresh fruit almost all the year long.  Likewise, if you desire to have,

"Sperage always growing fresh,"

And fit to be eaten, you must take this course.  As soon as you have gathered the fruit, you must dig round about the roots as they lie in their own place under the earth, and by this means they will shoot up into new stalks.  In likewise manner, if you desire to have,

"Roses growing all the year long,"

You must plant them in every month, and by dunging them, and taking good heed unto them, you shall have fresh Roses continually.  By the like practice, you may also have,

"Lilies all the year long,"

For if, you take the roots or cloves of Lilies, and set them in the ground, some fourteen, some twelve, some eight fingers deep, you shall by this means have Lilies all the year long, and so many several flowers of them as you have planted several roots.  And as this may be done by Lilies, so Anatolius thinks the same practice will take like effect in all other flowers.  Theophrastus says, that we may have,

"Violets always growing,"

If we set them in well-fenced places, and such as lie open to the force of the sun.  For commonly fruits and flowers will grow there, when they will grow no where else.  But they must be very carefully looked unto, and then they will come  on the better.  The best way is, to set them in earthen vessels, and keep them from vehement cold and heat, bringing them forth still when the air is calm and temperate, and applying them with moisture, and Muck, and careful dressing.  So we may procure also that,

"The Herb Oenanthe shall flourish all the year,"

For Theophrastus writes, that if we deal thereby, as in the procuring of Violets, we shall have flowers upon it continually.

Chapter X

"How to produce fruits that shall be later and backward."

We have already shown how to produce forward fruits that will be very timely ripe, now it remains that we set down such cunning sleights and devices, as whereby we may procure fruit to grow very later, not to be ripe before the lowest of winter.  And this we may learn to effect by contrary causes to the former, and whereas we were to heat that which we would have to be timely ripe, we must here use coolers to make things ripen slowly, and whereas before we were to Graft later fruits into forward trees, here we must Graft forward fruits into later trees.  Likewise we must sow or plant late, that we may receive later fruit.  For as beasts that are long here must be perfectly bred, are long before they have their hair, and do not change their hair before the same time of the year come again, in which they were brought forth, so also in plants it comes to pass, that if they be set late, they will grow late, and bring forth backward fruits.  To begin with Grafting, we will show how thereby,

"To produce later Cherries."

There is a kind of tree that brings forth a very bitter fruit, so bitter that is called Amarendula, that is to say, a Bitterling. A branch of this tree being Grafted into a Cherry tree, after three or four Grafting will bring forth at length Cherries that will be very later.  And, however, the fruit of its own kind be very bitter, yet in time it will forget its former Relish, and yield a more pleasant taste.  We may effect this also by that kind of Grafting which we spoke of in the eighth chapter, but that will be longer in working.  Likewise we may procure that,

"A Pear shall grow exceeding later,"

If we Graft the same into a Willow, for we have declared before, that such a Grafting there may be, and certain it is, that thereby a very later fruit may be produced.  But we must see that the Willow, grow in such a place, as where it may be nourished with continual moisture, and this Grafting must be done about the last days of the Moon's last quarter, and it must be Grafted between the tree and the bark.  If any man would have,

"Roses grow later,"

Florentinus shows how it may be effected. When you have Grafted the Vine branch into a Cherry tree, as soon as ever the fruit comes forth, you must set the bud of a Rose into the bark or Pill thereof.  For growing in another body, look what time the tree wherein it is set, will Fructify, and the same time will the Rose open itself, yielding a very excellent favor, and besides will be very pleasant to behold.  To be short, all kinds of fruits may be made to grow later, by this kind of Grafting.  Now there is another way whereby we may procure the backward growth of fruits.  And this is by shaking or plucking off the buds or blossoms that grow first upon the tree, for while new buds are growing up in the room of the first, time wears away, and yet if the air be seasonable, these later buds will be good fruit, and well ripened, though they be slow.  Thus we may produce,

"Figs that are very backward,"

As Columella shows.  When the green Figs are very small, shake them off, and the tree will bring forth others that will not be ripe before the latter end of winter.  And Pliny following his authority, says, that Figs will grow latter, if the first green ones be shaken off when they are about the bigness of a bean, for then others will come up in their stead, which will be long in ripening.  And by this means it is, that Tarentinus shows how to produce,

"Latter Grapes,"

We must take away the bunches that grow first, and then others will grow up in their stead.  But we must have a special care still to look to the Vine, that clusters may grow, and at length be ripened.  By this means likewise we cause,

"Roses to open or blow very later,"

If we tuck off the buds that grow first, at such time as the flower begins to appear and show forth itself.  This practice will take best effect, if it be Musk Roses, especially such as are found to be fullest of leaves, for thus we have the country store of Roses growing all winter long, as they stand in earthen vessels, and are set up in windows, So if you would have,

"Clove-gilliflowers blow later,"

You must tuck off the first stalks and slips about that time as they are ready to bud, and set them in the heat of the Sun all the summer long, but you must water them continually, that they lose not all their moisture.  For by this practice we have procured other stalks, and other slips which have yielded flowers all the winter long even to the spring, so that we have continual winter Gilliflowers, both at home and in the country abroad.  There is also another device whereby we may cause fruit to ripen very late, not by shaking or cutting off the buds, but by planting them late, and keeping away the cold from them.  As for example, If we would,

"Produce later Cucumbers,"

Because we know that this kind of fruit cannot endure any frost, or showers, or cold storms, therefore we must sow the seeds in the summertime, and when the winter draws on, we must lay heaps of Muck round about them, whereby no cold may come at them to destroy them, and they may be ripened through the heat and fatness thereof.  But the best way to have later Cucumbers, is, as we have shown before, either to set thereof into great Fennel stalks, or else to cast the Cucumbers into a pit for a certain season.  If we would have,

"A Rose blow in the Winter,"

We must watch the time when the tops of the sets begin to shoot up, as they grow on their beds, and then take away the sets, and plant them in another place, where the root afterward will take, and so yield us a winter Rose.  Likewise if we desire to have,

"Strawberries in the winter or spring,"

As we have in the summer, we must take them while they are white, before they are grown to their reddish color, and put them leaves and all into Reeds or Canes, stopping up the mouth thereof with some fat Foil, and burying them in the earth till Winter comes, and the if we would have them to be red of their own natural color, let them lie a while in the Sun, and we shall obtain our purpose.  By the like device as this is, we may reserve,

"Lettuce for a Winter Salad."

When she has brought forth her leaves, that they grow up round together, you must bind the tops of them about with a little string, and keep the growing in an earthen vessel, in such a place as they may always receive fit nourishment, and by this means you shall have them still white and tender.  In like manner,

"Endive may be kept all Winter,"

To have it still fresh for any use.  Others take other courses that are less chargeable, as to cover them only with earth, or with straw and leaves.  Gardeners with us cover them in their gardens with sand or such like earth, whereby they keep them very white and tender, and yet enjoy them all Winter long.

Chapter XI

"How we may cause fruit to grow bigger then their ordinary kind."

It remains now that we set down certain rules and ways whereby fruit may be made greater, and far exceed the ordinary bigness of their own kind.  and this may be effected diverse ways.  For it may be done either by Engraffing only (for indeed this is the chief privilege that Engraffing has, to procure larger fruit.)  Or else by planting upon those trees which bring forth greater fruit of their own kind.  Or else by gathering of the fruit here and there some, if the tree be overloaded, that so the juice may more plentifully bestow itself upon the fruit that is left behind.  Or else by dressing and trimming them.  Or by other devices, as hereafter will be shown.  We will first begin with Engraffing, and show how we may procure thereby,

"That Apples or other like fruit shall grow bigger then they are found."

A tree that is planted with a Graft of her own kind, will always bring forth greater fruit, then if it were not so planted.  We brought an example hereof out of Pliny, that Corellius took a Scion of a Chestnut tree, and Grafted the same into the tree again, and thereby produced a greater and better Chestnut.  and for my own part, I have often made the like proof in many other fruits, and by experience have found that all fruits may be made greater by Engraffing, and careful looking unto, but especially Citrons.  Secondly we may procure fruit to be greater then ordinary, by grafting upon another tree, whose kind is to bear bigger fruit.  As for example, if we would produce,

"Pears that should be greater then ordinary,"

Especially  the least sort of Pears called Myrapia, or Musk-pears.  We may effect it by Engraffing them to a Quince tree.  Because the Quince tree, of all others, bears the greatest fruit.  And thereby the least Pears that are may be so augmented, that they will become a very goodly fruit.  Experience whereof, we have in many places in our country.  So we may cause,

"The Medlar tree to bear huge Medlars,"

Greater then any man would imagine, if we Engrafted it into the Quince tree.  The proof whereof both I have made myself, and seen it tried by many others.  And the oftener we so Engraff it, the greater Medlars we shall produce.  Likewise,

"The small Apricot may be made greater."

Whereas they are the smallest kind of Peaches that are.  I have often Engrafted it upon that kind of Damosin tree which bears a Plum like a Goat's Stone both in shape and greatness, (it may be it is our Scag tree) and by this means I procured great Apricots.  But if you Engraff it into any other