University of Massachusetts at Boston
McCormack School of Policy Studies

Epidemiological Thinking and Population Health

PPol G 753, crosslisted as Nursng 753 & CrCrTh 653
Syllabus
Spring 2019

I. Quick access to key information and links to bookmark on your browser

Instructor Peter Taylor, Science in a Changing World graduate track, Public Policy program
Email peter.taylor@umb.edu
Office Wheatley 4th flr 170 (phone 617-287-7636 [note: use email, not voicemail for timely response])
Class meetings Tues 4-6.45pm. W-4-170 or from a distance by zoom, http://bit.ly/753zoom
Contact hours By signup at www.faculty.umb.edu/peter_taylor/PTOfficeHours.html, or by arrangement
Syllabus www.faculty.umb.edu/peter_taylor/753-19.html BOOKMARK THIS!
Resources www.faculty.umb.edu/peter_taylor/epi BOOKMARK THIS!
with links to Notes elaborating on requirements, notes about preparing, annotations of readings from years past, visual aids, and audio recording of lectures
Blog epi753.wordpress.com/ BOOKMARK THIS!
viewable only by students and instructor-for access to password-protected readings, posting of sketches (aka installments in the project), annotations of readings, glossary entries, and other reflections
Bookmarked URLs groups.diigo.com/group/epidemiology shows relevant URLs bookmarked by instructor and (optionally) students who join this diigo group
Glitches use bit.ly/692glitches to report glitches in online materials

II. Information to get started, orient yourself at the start of the course, and refer back to from time to time

Catalog description: Introduction to the concepts, methods, and problems involved in analyzing the biological and social influences on behaviors and diseases and in translating such analyses into population health policy and practice. Special attention given to social inequalities, changes over the life course, and heterogeneous pathways. Case studies and course projects are shaped to accommodate students with interests in diverse fields related to health and public policy. Students are assumed to have a statistical background, but the course emphasizes epidemiological literacy with a view to collaborating thoughtfully with specialists, not technical expertise.

Texts and Materials:
Gordis, L. Epidemiology. Philadelphia, Saunders/ Elsevier. (=primer for the course. Old editions are OK.)
Reading pdfs via the blog (link at the top right).
Useful texts, but not required:
Kirkwood, B. R. and J. A. C. Sterne (2003). Essential Medical Statistics. Malden, Blackwell (something to borrow, not buy)
A guide on technical matters of writing scholarly papers, such as, Turabian, K. L. (1996). A Manual For Writers of Term papers, Theses, and Disertations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
A reference on tools and processes for inquiry, writing and collaboration: Taylor, P., J. Szteiter (2012) Taking Yourself Seriously: Processes of Research and Engagement. Arlington: The Pumping Station (pdf from http://thepumpingstation.org/books or paperback from other online booksellers)

Overview and Mechanics of Course:
The syllabus is organized around a sequence of basic ideas in thinking like epidemiologists, especially epidemiologists who pay attention to possible social influences on the development and unequal distribution of diseases (aka health disparities) and behaviors in populations. Each session has 4 parts: (Online students join the class sessions using zoom. With special permission, online students can take the whole course asynchronously, or any student can make up for a missed session, in which case you listen to the recordings of the mini-lecture and class meeting, then post to the course blog your contributions re: b-d.)

To prepare for each week's discussion, students read the common readings and at least one of the supplementary readings (or an alternative drawn from the student's own area of focus) (for doctoral students, at least two), post annotations of those readings to the blog by the night before class, and review the postings of other students before class. For the project, each student identifies a research or policy issue for the semester and each week prepares a sketch of ways that the concepts, methods, and problems of that week might be applied that issue. The provisional project is that all students address the question of the health consequences of high-fructose corn syrup in the US diet, taking off from the youtube by pediatric endocrinologist, Robert Lustig. (In session 2 we will decide whether some or all students define a different issue of their own interest.) Students also post regular additions to a glossary of terms from chapters of the Gordis text illustrated by examples from the project or the student's field. Blog posts on reflections on the learning process or epidemiological thinking (or lack thereof) in the news and constructive comments on other students' submissions are welcome at any time. In an end-of-course portfolio, students select highlights from their sketches, annotations, and glossary entries, then introduce them with an essay that explains to an outside reader the development of their thinking during the course and plans for further development.

The conventional notion of teaching as transmission of knowledge from instructor to students has some place in this course. The instructor provides (through the mini-lectures, course webpages and Taylor 2018) an introduction to and motivation of each session's readings and cases. The instructor will also provide assistance with technical questions of concern either to the whole class or to individual students, refer to relevant sections of Gordis and Kirkwood, and/or help students create a network of specialists they can consult with during and the semester and after the course is over. At the same time, it is expected that students (and the instructor) will have to employ strategies of reading that allow us to extract take-home lessons from readings even as we skip sections that become too technical for us. The course as a whole aims to cultivate skills and dispositions of critical thinking and of life-long, cooperative learning facilitated by the resources of the internet. The use of controversies follows an idea central to critical thinking, namely, that we understand ideas better by holding them in tension with alternatives (see Taylor 2018).

Technical: Writing Support beyond the course: For graduate students, see http://www.cct.umb.edu/writingsupport.html.

Accommodations: Sections 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 offer guidelines for curriculum modifications and adaptations for students with documented disabilities. If applicable, students may obtain adaptation recommendations from the Ross Center (287-7430). The student must present these recommendations to each professor within a reasonable period, preferably by the end of the Drop/Add period.

Students are advised to retain a copy of this syllabus in their personal files.

This syllabus is subject to change, but workload expectations will not be increased after the semester starts.

Version 29 January '19

Acknowledgements: The assistance of Jan Coe and Louisa Holmes, the advice of Yoav Ben-Shlomo and Barbara Goldoftas, the hospitality of the Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol and suggestions made by various members of the Spirit of 1848 listserv, especially Sam Friedman and Nancy Krieger, have been helpful in the development of the syllabus for this course since its inception in 2007.

III. Contract: Course requirements and assessment

  • The course revolves around weekly written assignments as well as participation items (which include active participation during class based on preparation between classes), as summarized below. Guidance on how to think about the work and learning expectations for the course as a whole can be gained from the items in the Rubric below. Guidance on how to address specific assignments can be drawn from the material in the Notes on Teaching/Learning Interactions and student submissions from previous years posted on the course blow.
  • It is expected that you will spend at least 7 hours per session outside class time reading, researching, and writing. The course works by building from topic to the next so not being prepared or late submissions detract significantly from the learning possible in class sessions.
  • Use your personal assignment checklist (a copy of www.faculty.umb.edu/peter_taylor/epi/Checklist.html) to keep track of due dates and throughout the semester record assignments and participation items submitted/fulfilled. Do not expect emails, class-time or meetings with the instructor to be taken up reminding you or cross-checking with your records.
  • You can ask for extensions on two assignments or participation items, moving the due date as far back as the last session. Also, to accommodate the contingencies of your lives, 20% of the assignments and participation items can be skipped altogether without penalty. (No explanation is needed for extensions or skipped work. Simply record these on your assignment checklist and keep up with other assignments and participation items.) (See policy for requesting an Incomplete.)
  • The written assignments are commented on, but not graded. Not grading keeps the focus on Dialogue around written work, which provides guidance on Revision and Resubmission tailored to each student's specific interests and needs. You are expected to read comments carefully, consult with the peer commenter or instructor if you don't understand a comment they made, revise thoughtfully (i.e., do more than touch up) in response to the comments, and resubmit within a week. (Sometimes you might be asked to revise again; sometimes you will get OK/RNR = revision not requested.) (See Rationale for the Assessment system.)
  • Postings of assignments to the blog are visible to other students, including those from other years. However, you may make them private posts (visible only to you and the instructor) during the semester or after the course is over.
  • For CCT graduate students only: The essay accompanying your Portfolio should be suitable for inclusion in the required Reflective Practitioner's Portfolio.

  • Written assignments, 3/4 of course grade
    a. Regular additions to glossary of terms from the Gordis text, illustrated by examples from the student's field (5-10 lines each; averaging one term [or set(s) of related terms] per week, weeks 2-14).
    b. Weekly sketches of ways that the concepts, methods, and problems of that week might be applied to the research/policy question (250 words; posted during the week after the class for sessions 2-13).
    c. Weekly annotations of one of the common readings and one supplementary reference (or additional reference drawn from student's area of interest) (1 paragraph for each; posted at least 1 day before class; weeks 2-14).
    d. Portfolio, including selection (from a-c) and essay (1000-1500 words) on development of student's thinking during the course and plans for further development (2 assignments = Complete Draft week 13 and Final version revised in response to comments one week after week 14).

    Participation and contribution to the class process, 1/4 of course grade
    e. Punctual attendance in class meetings (14 items)*
    f. Prepared participation in class discussions and workshop period (for weeks 2-14; 13 items)**
    g. Syllabus "quiz" (submitted as comments on the designated blog post)
    h. Minimum of two in-office or phone conferences on your projects and other questions (one by week 5, the other by week 10; 2 items)
    i. Assignment check-list maintained by the student throughout the semester (reviewed mid-semester and at end with self-assessment completed)
    j. Comment on another student's draft portfolio selection and essay
    k. BONUS: Constructive comments on other students' posts (1 item for 4 comments)
    Overall course grade If you complete at least 32 of the written assignments and at least 25 participation items you get 80 points. (If you do fewer of either, you get 2 points for each written assignment submitted on time & revised (not needed if you get OK/RNR) [1 point for late submissions/revisions] and 1 for each participation item up to a maximum of 80.) This rubric (below) is used at the end of the course to add further points:
    For each quality "fulfilled very well" you get 2 additional points. If you "did an OK job, but there was room for more development/attention," you get 1 point. If it was not much evident; you get 0 points.
    Minimum points for letter grades: A >= 95 points, A- 90, B+ 80, B 72.5, B- 65, C+ 57.5, and C 50.

    IV. Schedule of classes: What is expected each session and why -- how each session contributes to the unfolding of the course

    Quick links to sessions (1: 1/29, 2: 2/5, 3: 2/12, 4: 2/19, 5: 2/26, 6: 3/5, 7: 3/19, 8: 3/26, 9: 4/2, 10: 4/9, 11: 4/16, 12: 4/23, 13: 4/30, 14: 5/7)

    Recommended reading in advance of the course: Rabin (2009) for Class 1

    (1/29) 1a. The course as a learning community
    Idea: Developing epidemiological literacy requires collaboration with others (of differing skills and interests) and reflection on personal and professional development.
    Students identify personal, intellectual, professional interests in relation to central themes about inequality, pathways of development, social determinants of health, and policy (worksheet, followed by spoken introductions).
    1b. Reading and learning strategies
    Idea: Developing epidemiological literacy requires establish our own practices of learning from material we don't fully grasp at first reading/hearing, practices shaped to complement our own specific interests and work.
    (instructions)
    Case 1: Risks in risk reduction (Rabin 2009)
    Case 2: (provisional) On health consequences of high-fructose corn syrup in the US diet, youtube by pediatric endocrinologist, Robert Lustig
    Note: Continuing discussion of reading and learning strategies might take place throughout the semester via reflections posted to the blog.
    Supplementary Reading: Ness 2012

    Mini-lecture to set the scene for the topic of the next week. (ditto for subsequent weeks, even though not listed explicitly from week 2 on.)
    Allchin, "Of Rice and Men"
    (The case of Christiaan Eijkman and his search for the cause of beriberi in the Dutch East Indies in 1890s, D. Allchin) (introduction; link to full case to be added after the class)

    Homework: 1. Complete the "syllabus quiz" to review this syllabus, the resources, Notes on teaching/learning interactions and linked guidelines on the wiki site, assessment system, access to readings, and the blog.
    2. Watch till the end of the Lustig video with a view to the research or policy issue for the semester-long project being the health consequences of high-fructose corn syrup in the US diet or something different. We'll workshop on defining your angle on this project or define different project areas in session 2.
    3. Prepare for session 2, including submit first glossary entry and first annotations of readings.

    (2/5) 2. Phenomena: Exploring the "natural history" of disease
    Idea: Detailed observation (as naturalists make) or detective work--albeit informed by theoretical ideas--may be needed before we can characterize what the phenomenon is we are studying, what questions we need to ask, and what categories we need for subsequent data collection and analysis.
    Common reading and cases: Oxford 2005 (1918 flu pandemic), Barker 1971 (buruli disease)
    Supplementary Readings: Barker 1998,pp.1-12, 167-172, Barker 1999, Brody 2000, Cohen 2014, Friedman 2013, PBS "Killer flu" Video
    Idea (behind glossary): Non-specialists need to become comfortable with the fundamental ideas and basic vocabulary of epidemiology in order to converse intelligently with specialists in epidemiology and biostatistics. (One way to move in that direction is to practice making the ideas accessible to the layperson. Another way is to apply the ideas to a specific area of health research and policy and to address any controversies among the ideas.)
    Check-in replaced this session by Workshop, which will cover glossary entries (instructions), definition of a research and policy issue for the semester-long project, and translation of this week's concepts, methods, and problems into that project area.
    Also: Questions on syllabus and course mechanics, including coaching each other on use of wordpress blog.
    (Workshop sessions will be held in future weeks even though not listed explicitly from this point on.)

    (2/12) 3. The scope and challenges of epidemiology
    Idea: The uses of epidemiology are many, but shift over time, and are subject to recurrent challenges from inside and outside the field.
    Idea: In advising on the most effective measures to be taken to improve the health of a population, epidemiologists may focus on different determinants of the disease than a doctor would when faced with sick or high-risk individuals.
    Idea: Epidemics affect population health, but are not the primary focus of social epdemiology.
    Common readings: Davey-Smith 2001 (uses of epidemiology), Rose 1985 (population health)
    Supplementary Readings: Brandt 2000, Caldwell 2001, Davison 1991, Hoffman 2014, Krieger 2010a, 2014b, McMichael 2011, Nandi 2014, Pearce 1996, Putnam 2008, Schwartz 1999

    (2/19) 4. Categories
    Idea: Collecting and analyzing data requires categories: Have we omitted relevant categories or mixed different phenomena under one label? What basis do we have for subdividing a continuum into categories? How do we ensure correct diagnosis and assignment to categories? What meaning do we intend to give to data collected in our categories?
    Common readings and cases: Davey-Smith et al. 2000 (Comparative methods for studying socioeconomic position and health in different ethnic communities), Poland 2004 ("schizophrenia")
    Supplementary Readings: Birley 2000, Dohrenwend 1993, Hacking 2013, Hymowitz 2007, Marks 2003, Pickles 2003

    (2/26) 5. Associations, Predictions, Causes, and Interventions
    Idea: With respect to the relationships among associations, predictions, causes, and interventions that run through most cases and controversies in epidemiology, the field has two faces: One from which the thinking about associations, predictions, causes, and interventions are allowed to cross-fertilize, and the other from which the distinctions among them are vigorously maintained, as in "Correlation is not causation!" The second face views Randomized Control Trial (RCTs) as the "gold-standard" for testing treatments in medicine. The first face recognizes that many hypotheses about treatment and other interventions emerge from observational studies and often such studies provide the only data we have to work with. What then are the shortcomings of observational studies we need to pay attention to?
    Common readings and cases: Ridker 2007 (Cardiac risk factors), Stampfer 1991, 2004 (Hormone replacement therapy)
    Supplementary Readings: Alzheimer Research Forum 2004, Antithrombotic 2009, Blakey 2014, Davey-Smith & Ebrahim 2007,pp2-8, Jick 2000, Krieger & Davey Smith 2016, Petitti 2004, Seshasai 2012, Shunkert 2008, Sihvonen 2013, Smith 2003

    (3/5) 6. Confounders & conditioning of analyses
    Idea: Statistical associations between any two variables generally vary depending on the values taken by other "confounding" variables. We need to take this dependency or conditionality into account when using our analyses to make predictions or hypothesize about causes, but how do we decide which variables are relevant and real confounders?
    Common readings and cases: Davey-Smith 1997 (Control at work and mortality), Davey-Smith & Ebrahim 2007 (Mendelian randomization to analyze environmental exposures), Hernan (2000), Lynch 2007 (video)
    Supplementary Readings: Davies 2006, Egede 2003, Franks 2011, Huxley 2002, Krieger & Davey Smith 2016b, Lawlor 2004, Marmot 2001, Petitti 2005, Prentice 2005


    No class 3/12 - chance to catch up with glossary and sketches and revisions
    Mid-semester self-assessment
    (3/19) 7. Variations in health care (by place, race, class, gender)
    Idea: Inequalities in people's health and how they are treated are associated with place, race, class, gender; these inequalities may persist even after conditioning on other relevant variables.
    Common readings and cases: Alter 1999 (Access to cardiac procedures), Lynch 2007 (video)
    Supplementary Readings: Bailey 2016, Bassuk 2002, Calzoa 2019, Davey-Smith 2000, Dunn 2007, Egede 2003, Gawande 2009, Krieger 2005, 2010, 2010a, 2014, 2014a, Marmot 2001, Roger 2000, Sparke 2014, Wright 2004

    (3/26) 8. Heterogeneity within populations; subgroups
    Idea: How people respond to treatment may vary from one subgroup to another—When is this a matter of chance or of undetected additional variables? How do we delineate the boundaries between subgroups?
    Common readings and cases: Regan 2005 (Forms of breast cancer), Lagakos 2006 (Statistical concerns)
    Supplementary Readings: Davey-Smith 2011, Eikelboom 2003, Fazel 2013, Gum 2003, Kahn 2007, Nelson 2005, Steinbach 2014

    (4/2) 9. Placing individuals in a multileveled context
    Idea: Different or even contradictory associations can be detected at different levels of aggregation (e.g., individual, region, nation), yet not all influences can be assigned to properties of the individual. Membership in a larger aggregation may be associated with outcomes even after conditioning on the attributes that individual members have.
    Common readings and cases: Freedman 2001 (Ecological and atomistic fallacies), Diez-Roux 2002a, b (Neighborhood effects), Marcelli 2006 (Obesity)
    Supplementary Readings: Balfour 2002, Coulton 1999, Dunn 2007, Friedman 2014, 2015, 2016, Holmes 2012, Korbin 2000, Lawlor 2005, Marcelli 2005, Oakes 2004, Schootman 2007

    (4/9) 10. Life course epidemiology
    Idea: How do we identify and disentangle the biological and social factors that build on each other over the life course from gestation through to old age?
    Common readings and cases: Ben-Shlomo 2002 (Life course development of disease), Brown 1978 (Life Events and Difficulties)
    Supplementary Readings: Barker 1998,pp43-80, Berney 2000, Davey-Smith 2007, Krieger 2005b, Kuh 2003, Lynch 2005.

    (4/16) 11. Multivariable "structural" models of development
    Idea: Just as standard regression models allow prediction of a dependent variable on the basis of independent variables, structural models can allow a sequence of predictive steps from root ("exogeneous") through to highest-level variables. Although this kind of model seems to illuminate issues about factors that build up over the life course, there are strong criticisms of using such models to make claims about causes.
    Common readings and cases: Kendler 2002 (pathways to depression in women), Freedman 2005 (Structural models as causal models?)
    Supplementary Readings: Chandola 2006, Friedman 2011, Krieger 2014, Ou 2005, Rini 1999

    (4/23) 12. Heritability, heterogeneity, and group differences
    Idea: As conventionally interpreted, heritability indicates the fraction of variation in a trait associated with "genetic differences." A high value indicates a strong genetic contribution to the trait and "makes the trait a potentially worthwhile candidate for molecular research" that might identify the specific genetic factors involved. A contrasting interpretation is that there is nothing reliable that anyone can do on the basis of estimates of heritability for human traits. While some have moved their focus to cases in which measurable genetic and environmental factors are involved, others see the need to bring genetics into the explanation of differences for certain traits between the averages for groups, especially racial groups.
    Common readings and cases: Moffitt 2005 (Interaction of measured genes and measured environments), Taylor 2014a (skepticism about the estimation and interpretation of heritability)
    Supplementary Readings: Caspi 2002, Davey-Smith 2009, Davies 2011, Dickens 2001, Plomin 2006, Rosenquist 2014, Rushton 2005, Rutter 2002, Taylor 2010, 2014b, Turkheimer 2000, Young 2006

    (4/30) 13. Genetic diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and surveillance
    Idea: Genetic analysis has begun to identify genetic risk factors. We need to consider the social infrastructure needed to keep track of the genetic and environmental exposures with a view to useful epidemiological analysis and subsequent healthcare measures. Even in cases where the condition has a clear-cut link to a single changed gene and treatment is possible, there is complexity in sustaining that treatment.
    Common readings and cases: Khoury 2007 (Many genes as small risk factors), Paul 1998 (Complexities of social support after PKU diagnosis)
    Supplementary Readings: Bowcock 2007, Frank 2005, Khera 2016, Taylor 2009

    Note:: Complete draft of final portfolio selection due by uploading to blog (as a pdf) for instructor and peer comments.

    (5/7) 14a. Popular and lay epidemiology and health-based social movements
    Idea: The traditional subjects of epidemiology become agents when: a. they draw attention of trained epidemiologists to fine scale patterns of disease in that community and otherwise contribute to initiation and completion of studies; b. their resilience and reorganization of their lives and communities in response to social changes displaces or complements researchers' traditional emphasis on exposures impinging on subjects; and c. when their responses to health risks displays rationalities not taken into account by epidemiologists, health educators, and policy makers.
    Common readings and cases: Brown 1992 (Popular epidemiology), Krieger (2011)
    Supplementary Readings: Black 2001, Brown 2006, Davison 1991, Epstein 1995, Lawlor 2003, Markowitz 2016, Mehdipanah 2013, Panofsky 2011, Schienke 2001

    14b. Taking Stock of Course: Where have we come and what do we need to learn to go further?
    Idea: In order to move ahead and continue developing, it is important to take stock of what went well and what needs further work.
    Common reading: Taylor 2018
    Supplementary Reading: Wing 2015
  • Comparison of initial profiles and current position. Revision of profiles into plans for personal and professional development.
  • Discussion of critical thinking framework for epidemiological literacy
  • Narrative course evaluations, accessed via www.cct.umb.edu/CourseEvaluations.html.

    No class, 5/14. Portfolios due by adding the pdf to the blog post for your draft portfolio.

    V. Bibliography


    Link to access password-protected readings via Blog
    See also:
    Allchin, D. (n.d.) "Of rice and men." SHiPS Resource Center.
    Alter, D. A., C. D. Naylor, et al. (1999). "Effects of socioeconomic status on access to invasive cardiac procedures and on mortality after acute myocardial infarction." New England Journal of Medicine 341: 1359-1367.
    Alzheimer_Research_Forum (2004). "Philadelphia: All Is Not Well with the Statin Story." http://www.alzforum.org/news/conference-coverage/philadelphia-all-not-well-statin-story.
    Antithrombotic_Trialists'_Collaboration (2009). "Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials." Lancet 373: 1849-1860.
    Bailey, Z. D., Krieger, N., Agénor, M., Graves, J., Linos, N., & Bassett, M. T. (2017). Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet 389: 1453–1463.
    Balfour, J. L. and G. A. Kaplan (2002). "Neighborhood Environment and Loss of Physical Function in Older Adults: Evidence from the Alameda County Study." American Journal of Epidemiology 155: 507-515.
    Barker, D. J. P. (1971). "Buruli disease in a district of Uganda." Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 74: 260-264.
    Barker, D. J. P. (1998). Mothers, Babies, and Health in Later Life. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone.
    Barker, D. J. P. (1999). "Commentary: Intrauterine nutrition may be important." British Medical Journal 318: 1471-1480. (http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/318/7196/1471#resp2)
    Bassuk, S. S., L. F. Berkman, et al. (2002). "Socioeconomic Status and Mortality among the Elderly: Findings from Four US Communities." American Journal of Epidemiology 155: 520-533.
    Ben-Shlomo, Y. and D. Kuh (2002). "A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: Conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives." International Journal of Epidemiology 31: 285-293.
    Berney, L., D. Blane, et al. (2000). Life course influences on health in old age. Understanding health inequalities. H. Graham. Buckingham [England], Open University Press: 79-95.
    Bestic, L. (2014). "Cereal killer: Are you eating too much iron?" New Scientist(4 December).
    Birley, J. and D. Goldberg (2000). George Brown's contribution to psychiatry: The effort after meaning. Where Inner and Outer Worlds Meet. T. Harris. London, Routledge: 55-60.
    Black, N. (2001). "Evidence based policy: proceed with care," BMJ 323: 275-279.
    Blakey, K., R. G. Feltbower, et al. (2014). "Is fluoride a risk factor for bone cancer? Small area analysis of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma diagnosed among 0–49-year-olds in Great Britain, 1980–2005." International Journal of Epidemiology 43(1): 224-234.
    Bowcock, A. M. (2007). "Guilt by association." Nature 447: 645-646.
    Brandt, A. M. and M. Gardner (2000). "Antagonism and accommodation: interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century." American Journal of Public Health 90: 707-715.
    Brody, H., M. R. Rip, et al. (2000). "Map-making and myth-making in Broad Street: the London cholera epidemic, 1854." The Lancet 356: 64-68.
    Brown, G. W. and T. O. Harris (1978). Sociology and the aetiology of depression; Depression and Loss; A Model of Depression; Summary and conclusions. Social Origins of Depression: a Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. New York, Free Press: 3-20; 233-293.
    Brown, P. (1992). "Popular Epidemiology and Toxic Waste Contamination: Lay and Professional Ways of Knowing." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 33: 267-281.
    Brown, P., S. McCormick, et al. (2006). "'A lab of our own': Environmental causation of breast cancer and challenges to the dominant epidemiological paradigm." Science, Technology, & Human Values 31(5): 499-536.
    Caldwell, J. C. (2001). "Population health in transition." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(2): 159-160.
    Calzoa, J., L. Katz-Wise, S., M. Charlton, B., R. Gordon, A., & Nancy Krieger. (2019). Addressing the dearth of critical gender analysis in public health and medical pedagogy: an interdisciplinary seminar to generate student-created teaching examples. Critical Public Health, 29(1): 18-26.
    Caspi, A., J. McClay, et al. (2002). "Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children." Science 297(5582): 851-854.
    Chandola, T., P. Clarke, et al. (2006). "Pathways between education and health: a causal modelling approach." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society) 169(2): 337-359.
    Coggon, D., G. Rose, et al. (1999). Epidemiology for the Unitiated. London, BMJ Books. (Available online at http://www.bmj.com/epidem/epid.html)
    Cohen, J. (2014). "Mesoamerica’s Mystery Killer." Science 344: 143-147.
    Coulton, C. J., J. E. Korbin, et al. (1999). "Neighborhoods and Child Maltreatment: A Multi-Level Study." Child Abuse & Neglect 23(11): 1019–1040.
    Davey-Smith, G. (2000). "Learning to live with complexity: Ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and health in Britain and the United States." American Journal of Public Health 90: 1694-1698.
    Davey-Smith, G. (2001). "The uses of Uses of Epidemiology." International Journal of Epidemiology 30: 1146-1155.
    Davey-Smith, G. (2007). "Life-course approaches to inequalities in adult chronic disease risk." Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 66: 216-236.
    Davey-Smith, G. (2009). "Mendelian randomization for strengthening causal inference in observational studies: Application to gene by environment interaction." Perspectives on Psychological Science, in press.
    Davey Smith, G. (2011). "Epidemiology, epigenetics and the 'Gloomy Prospect': embracing randomness in population health research and practice " International Journal of Epidemiology 40: 537-562.
    Davey-Smith, G. et al. (2000). Ethnicity, health and the meaning of socio-economic position Pp. 25-37 In Graham, H., Ed. Understanding health inequalities. Buckingham [England], Open University Press.
    Davey-Smith, G. and S. Harding (1997). "Is control at work the key to socioeconomic gradients in mortality?" Lancet 350: 1369-1370.
    Davey-Smith, G. and S. Ebrahim (2007). "Mendelian randomization: Genetic variants as instruments for strengthening causal influences in observational studies. Pp 336-366 in Weinstein, M., Vaupel, J. W., Wachter, K.W. (eds) Biosocial Surveys. Washington, DC, National Academies Press.
    Davies, A., G. Davey-Smith, et al. (2006). "Association between birth weight and blood pressure is robust, amplifies with age, and may be underestimated." Hypertension 48: 431-436.
    Davies, G., A. Tenesa, et al. (2011). "Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic." Molecular Psychiatry: 1-10.
    Davison, C., G. Davey-Smith, et al. (1991). "Lay epidemiology and the prevention paradox: The implications of coronary candidacy for health education." Sociology of Health and Illness 13: 1-19.
    Dickens, W. T. and J. R. Flynn (2001). "Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved." Psychological Review 108(2): 346-369.
    Diez Roux, A. V. (2002a). "Invited Commentary: Places, People, and Health." American Journal of Epidemiology 155: 516-519.
    Diez Roux, A. V. (2002b). "A glossary for multilevel analysis." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56: 588-594.
    Dohrenwend, B. P., K. G. Raphael, et al. (1993). The structured event probe and narrative rating method for measuring stressful life events. Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects. L. Goldberg and S. Breznitz. New York, Free Press: 174-199.
    Dunn, J. R. and S. Cummins (2007). "Placing health in context." Social Science & Medicine 65: 1821-1824
    Egede, L. E. and D. Zheng (2003). "Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adult Vaccination Among Individuals With Diabetes." American Journal of Public Health 93(2): 324-329.
    Eikelboom, J. W. and G. J. Hankey (2003). "Aspirin resistance: a new independent predictor of vascular events?" Journal of the American College of Cardiology 41: 966-968.
    Epstein, S. (1995). "The construction of lay expertise: AIDS activism and the forging of credibility in the reform of clinical trials." Science, Technology, & Human Values 20(4): 408-437.
    Fazel, S. (2013). "Coin-flip judgement of psychopathic prisoners' risk." New Scientist.
    Fortun, K. (2004). "Environmental Information Systems as Appropriate Technology." Design Issues 20(3): 54-65.
    Frank, J. (2005). "A Tale of (More Than ?) Two Cohorts – from Canada." 3rd International Conference on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease.
    Franks, P., P. C. Winters, et al. (2011). "Do changes in traditional coronary heart disease risk factors over time explain the association between socio-economic status and coronary heart disease?" BMC Cardiovascular Disorders.
    Freedman, D. A. (2001). Ecological inference and the ecological fallacy. International Encyclopedia for the Social and Behavioral Sciences. N. J. Smelser and P. B. Baltes. Vol. 6. (http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~census/549.pdf)
    Freedman, D. A. (2005). Linear statistical models for causation: A critical review. Encyclopedia of Statistics in the Behavioral Sciences. B. Everitt and D. Howell. ??, Wiley.
    Friedman, S. R. and Rossi, D., 2011, "Dialectical theory and the study of HIV/AIDS and other epidemics," Dialectical Anthropology 35: 403–427.
    Friedman, S. R., M. Sandoval, et al. (2013). "Theory, Measurement and Hard Times: Some issues for HIV/AIDS research." AIDS & Behavior 17(6): 1915-1925.
    Friedman, S. R., B. S. West, et al. (2014). "Do metropolitan HIV epidemic histories and programs for people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men predict AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals?" Annals of Epidemiology 24(4): 304-311.
    Friedman, S. R., D. C. Perlman, et al. (2015). "The flawed reliance on randomized controlled trials in studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for people who inject drugs and other populations." Substance Use and Misuse, 50(8-9): 1117-24.
    Friedman, S. R., Tempalski, B., et al., 2016, "Income inequality, drug-related arrests, and the health of people who inject drugs: Reflections on seventeen years of research," International Journal of Drug Policy 32: 11-16.
    Gawande, A. (2009). "The cost conundrum: What a Texas town can teach us about health care." The New Yorker (1 June).
    Gordis, L. (1996, 2000, 0r 2004). Epidemiology. Philadelphia, Saunders/Elsevier.
    Gum, P. A., K. Kottke-Marchant, et al. (2003). "A prospective, blinded determination of the natural history of aspirin resistance among stable patients with cardiovascular disease." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 41: 961-965.
    Hacking, I. (2013). "Lost in the forest." London Review of Books 35(15).
    Hernan, M. A. (2002). "Causal Knowledge as a Preequisite for Confounding Evaluation: An Application to Birth Defects Epidemiology." American Journal of Epidemiology 155: 176-184.
    Hoffman, L. M. (2014). "Epidemics". In The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Health, Illness, Behavior , and Society. W. Cockerham, R. Dingwall and S. Quah (Eds.) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell
    Holmes, L. M. and E. A. Marcelli (2012). "Neighborhoods and systemic inflammation: High CRP among legal and unauthorized Brazilian migrants." Health & Place 18: 683-693.
    Huxley, R., A. Neil, et al. (2002). "Unravelling the fetal origins hypothesis: is there really an inverse association between birthweight and subsequent blood pressure?" Lancet 360(9334): 659-65.
    Hymowitz, K. S. (2007). "Marriage and Caste in America: Separate and Unequal Families in a PostMarital Age." Heritage Lecture #1005.
    Jick, H., G. L. Zomberg, et al. (2000). "Statins and the risk of dementia." Lancet 356: 1627-1631.
    Kahn, J. (2007). "Race in a Bottle." Scientific American(July 15).
    Kendler, K. S., C. O. Gardner, et al. (2002). "Towards a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in women." American Journal of Psychiatry 159: 1133-1145.
    Khera, A. V., Emdin, C. A., et al., 2016, "Genetic Risk, Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle, and Coronary Disease," New England Journal of Medicine 375: 2349-2358.
    Khoury, M. J., J. Little, M. Gwinn and J. P. Ioannidis (2007). "On the synthesis and interpretation of consistent but weak gene-disease associations in the era of genome-wide association studies." International Journal of Epidemiology 36: 439-445.
    Kirkwood, B. R. and J. A. C. Sterne (2003). Essential Medical Statistics. Malden, Blackwell.
    Korbin, J. E., C. J. Coulton, et al. (2000). "Neighborhood Views On The Definition And Etiology Of Child Maltreatment." Child Abuse & Neglect 24(12): 1509–1527.
    Krieger, N. (2010). The Science and Epidemiology of Racism and Health: Racial/Ethnic Categories, Biological Expressions of Racism, and the Embodiment of Inequality-an Ecosocial Perspective. In What's the use of race? Modern Governance and the biology of difference. Ed. I. Whitmarsh and D. S. Jones. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press: 225-255.
    Krieger, N. (2010a). Social inequalities in health. Teaching Epidemiology. Ed. J. Olsen, R. Saracci and D. Trichopoulos. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 215-240.
    Krieger, N. (2011). Epidemiologic Theory Counts: Harm, Knowledge, Action, and the People's Health. In Epidemiology and the People's Health. Theory and Context. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 236-295.
    Krieger, N., J. T. Chen, et al. (2005). "Painting a truer picture of US socioeconomic and racial/ethnic health inequalities: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Projec." American Journal of Public Health 95: 312-323.
    Krieger, N., J. T. Chen, et al. (2005b). "Lifetime socioeconomic position and twins' health: An analysis of 308 pairs of United States women twins." PLoS Med 2(7): e162.
    Krieger, N., A. Kosheleva, et al. (2014). "50-year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: US-born Black and White Americans, 1959–2008 " International Journal of Epidemiology 43(4): 1294-1313.
    Krieger, N. (2014a). "Discrimination and health inequities." International Journal of Health Services 44(4): 643-710.
    Krieger, N. (2014b). "Got theory? – on the 21st c CE rise of explicit use of epidemiologic theories of disease distribution: a review and ecosocial analysis," Current Epidemiol Reports 1: 45-56.
    Krieger, N. and Davey-Smith, G. (2016). "The tale wagged by the DAG: broadening the scope of causal inference and explanation for epidemiology," Int J Epidemiology 45(6): 1787-1808.
    Krieger, N., & Davey-Smith, G. (2016b). FACEing reality: productive tensions between our epidemiological questions, methods and mission. International Journal of Epidemiology 45: 1852–1865.
    Ku, C. S., E. Y. Loy, et al. (2010). "The pursuit of genome-wide association studies: where are we now?" Journal of Human Genetics 55(April): 195-206.
    Kuh, D., Y. Ben-Shlomo, et al. (2003). "Life course epidemiology." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57: 778-783.
    Lagakos, S. W. (2006). "The challenge of subgroup analysis--Reporting without distorting." New England Journal of Medicine 354: 1667-1669.
    Lawlor, D. A., S. Frankel, et al. (2003). "Smoking and Ill Health: Does Lay Epidemiology Explain the Failure of Smoking Cessation Programs Among Deprived Populations?" American Journal of Public Health 93(2): 266-270.
    Lawlor, D. A., G. Davey-Smith, et al. (2004). "Those confounded vitamins: what can we learn from the differences between observational versus randomised trial evidence?" The Lancet 363: 1724-1726.
    Lawlor, D. A., G. Davey-Smith, et al. (2005). "Life-Course Socioeconomic Position, Area Deprivation, and Coronary Heart Disease: Findings From the British Women's Heart and Health Study." American Journal of Public Health 95: 91-97.
    Lynch, J. W. (2007). "Relevant Risk, Revolution and Revisiting Rose – Causes of Population Levels and Social Inequalities in Health." (video)
    Lynch, J. and G. Davey-Smith (2005). "A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology." Annual Review of Public Health 26: 1-35.
    Marcelli, E., C. Jencks, et al. (2005). "The Impact of Family Socioeconomic Status and Income Inequality on Stature in the United States." Paper for Meeting of the Population Association of America, Philadelphia, PA.
    Marcelli, E., D. M. Cutler, et al. (2006ms). "An Estimate of the Effects of Income Inequality, Racial Segregation, and Food Prices on Adult Obesity in the United States."
    Markowitz, G. and Rosner, D., 2016, "Citizen Scientists and the Lessons of Flint," The Millbank Quarterly, https://www.milbank.org/quarterly/articles/citizen-scientists-lessons-flint/.
    Marks, H. M. (2003). "Epidemiologists Explain Pellagra: Gender, Race, and Political Economy in the Work of Edgar Sydenstricker." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 58(1): 34-55.
    Marmot, M. and R. G. Wilkinson (2001). "Psychosocial and material pathways in the relation between income and health: a response to Lynch et al " British Medical Journal 322: 1233-1236.
    McMichael, A. J. (2011). "Review of "Epidemiology and the People's Health. Theory and Context. Nancy Krieger"." International Journal of Epidemiology 40: 1130-1132.
    Mehdipanah, R., D. Malmusi, et al. (2013). "An evaluation of an urban renewal program and its effects on neighborhood resident's overall wellbeing using concept mapping Health & Place 23: 9-17.
    Moffitt, T. E., A. Caspi, et al. (2005). "Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments." Archives of General Psychiatry 62(5): 473-481.
    Morris, C., Sen, A., Pierce, K. & Beckwith, J. (2007). "Deconstructing violence." GeneWatch, 20 (2): March 20, 2007. Council for Responsible Genetics. Retrieved on August 17, 2007 from http://www.gene-watch.org/genewatch/articles/20-2Beckwith.html.
    Nandi, A. and S. Harper (2014). "How Consequential Is Social Epidemiology? A Review of Recent Evidence." Current Epidemiology Reports.
    Nelson, M. R., D. Liew, et al. (2005). "Epidemiological modelling of routine use of low dose aspirin for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke in those aged >=70." British Medical Journal 330: 1306-1311.
    Ness, R. B. (2012). "Tools for Innovative Thinking in Epidemiology." American Journal of Epidemiology 175(8): 733-738.
    Oakes, J. M. (2004). "The (mis)estimation of neighborhood effects: Causal inference for a practicable social epidemiology." Social Science & Medicine 58: 1929-1952.
    Ou, S.-R. (2005). "Pathways of long-term effects of an early intervention program on educational attainment: Findings from the Chicago longituidinal study." Applied Developmental Psychology 26: 478-611.
    Oxford, J. S., R. Lambkin, et al. (2005). " A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919." Vaccine 23(7): 940-945.
    Panofsky, A. (2011). "Generating sociability to drive science: Patient advocacy organizations and genetics research." Social Studies of Science 41(1): 31-57.
    Paul, D. (1998). The history of newborn phenylketonuria screening in the U.S. Final Report of the Task on Genetic Testing. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press: 1-13.
    PBS Home Video. (2004). "Killer flu" (video, in Healey library)
    Pearce, N. (1996). "Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health." American Journal of Public Health 86: 678-683.
    Petitti, D. B. and D. A. Freedman (2005). "Invited Commentary: How Far Can Epidemiologists Get with Statistical Adjustment?" American Journal of Epidemiology 162: 415-418.
    Pickles, A. and A. Angold (2003). "Natural categories or fundamental dimensions: On carving nature at the joints and the rearticulation of psychopathology." Development and Psychopathology 15: 529-551.
    Plomin, R. and K. Asbury (2006). "Nature and Nurture: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Behavior." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 600(1): 86-98.
    Poland, J. (2004). "Bias and schizophrenia." Pp. 149-161 in P. J. Caplan and L. Cosgrove, eds. Bias in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Prentice, R. L., R. Langer, et al. (2005). "Combined Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease: Toward Resolving the Discrepancy between Observational Studies and the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial." American Journal of Epidemiology 162(5): 404-414.
    Putnam, S. and S. Galea (2008). "Epidemiology and the Macrosocial Determinants of Health." Journal of Public Health Policy 29: 275-289.
    Rabin, R. C. (2009). "Rare side effect is seen in long-term use of a breast cancer drug." New York Times(August 26), http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/26/health/research/26cancer.html?_r=0
    Radford, T. (2002). "Scientists identify gene link to violence." The Guardian (London).
    Regan, M. M. and R. D. Gelber (2005). "Predicting response to systematic treatments: Learning from the past to plan for the future." The Breast 14: 582-593.
    Ridker, P. M., J. E. Buring, et al. (2007). "Development and Validation of Improved Algorithms for the Assessment of Global Cardiovascular Risk in Women: The Reynolds Risk Score." Journal of the American Medical Association 297: 611-619.
    Rini, C. K., C. Dunkel-Schetter, et al. (1999). "Psychological adaptation and birth outcomes: The role of personal resources, stress, and sociocultural context in pregnancy." Health Psychology 18: 333-345.
    Roger, V. L., M. E. Farkouh, et al. (2000). "Sex Differences in Evaluation and Outcome of Unstable Angina." Journal of the American Medical Association 283: 646-652.
    Rose, G. (1985). "Sick individuals and sick populations." International Journal of Epidemiology 14: 32-38. Reprinted in IJE 30: 427-432 (2001)
    Rosenquist, J. N., S. F. Lehrer, et al. (2014). "Cohort of birth modifies the association between FTO genotype and BMI." PNAS.
    Rushton, J. P. and A. R. Jensen (2005). "Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive ability." Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 11: 235-294.
    Rutter, M. (2002). "Nature, nurture, and development: From evangelism through science toward policy and practice." Child Development 73(1): 1-21.
    Schienke, E. (2001). Bill Pease/ An original developer of scorecard.org / 2001. Troy, NY, Center for Ethics in Complex Systems.
    Schootman, M., E. M. Andresen, et al. (2007). "The Effect of Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions on the Development of Diabetes Mellitus among Middle-aged African Americans." American Journal of Epidemiology 166(4): 379-387.
    Schwartz, S., E. Susser, et al. (1999). "A Future for Epidemiology?" Annual Review of Public Health 20: 15-35.
    Schunkert, H. and N. J. Samani (2008). "Elevated C-Reactive Protein in Atherosclerosis - Chicken or Egg?" New England Journal of Medicine 359(18): 1953-1955.
    Seshasai, S. R. K., S. Wijesuriya, et al. (2012). "Effect of Aspirin on Vascular and Nonvascular Outcomes: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." Archives of Internal Medicine.
    Sihvonen, R., M. Paavola, et al. (2013). "Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy versus Sham Surgery for a Degenerative Meniscal Tear." The New England Journal of Medicine 369: 2515-2524.
    Smith, G. C. S. and J. P. Pell (2003). "Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma related to gravitational challenge: systematic review of randomised controlled trials." British Medical Journal 327: 1459-1461.
    Sparke, M., 2014, "Health," The Sage Handbook of Human Geography, Lee, R., Castree, N., Kitchin, R.et al (eds.), London: Sage, 684-708.
    Stampfer, M. J. and G. A. Colditz (1991). "Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic evidence." Preventive Medicine 20: 47-63.
    Steinbach, R., J. Green, et al. (2014). "Is ethnic density associated with risk of child pedestrian injury? A comparison of inter-census changes in ethnic populations and injury rates." Ethnicity & Health.
    Stokstad, E. (2002). "Violent Effects of Abuse Tied to Gene." Science 297: 752.
    Taylor, P. J. (2009). "Infrastructure and Scaffolding: Interpretation and Change of Research Involving Human Genetic Information." Science as Culture, 18(4):435-459.
    Taylor, P. J. (2010). "Three puzzles and eight gaps: What heritability studies and critical commentaries have not paid enough attention to." Biology & Philosophy, 25:1-31. (DOI 10.1007/s10539-009-9174-x).
    Taylor, P. J. (2014a). "Five Fundamental Gaps In Nature-Nurture Science."Working Papers on Science in a Changing World, http://scholarworks.umb.edu/cct_sicw/3
    Taylor, P. J. (2014b). "Heterogeneity, not randomness, sets challenges for quantitative genetics and epidemiology: A response to Davey Smith's "gloomy prospect." Working Papers on Science in a Changing World, http://scholarworks.umb.edu/cct_sicw/2
    Taylor, P. J. (2018). Critical epidemiological literacy: Understanding ideas better when placed in relation to alternatives. Synthese. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-018-01960-6 Turkheimer, E. (2000). "Three laws of behavior genetics and what they mean." Current Directions in Psychological Science 9(5): 160-164.
    Wing, S. B., & Rennie, S. (2015). History and Philosophy of Epidemiology. Department of Epidemiology. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    Wright, R. J., H. Mitchell, et al. (2004). "Community Violence and Asthma Morbidity: The Inner-City Asthma Study " American Journal of Public Health 94: 625-632.
    Young, S. E., A. Smolen, et al. (2006). "Interaction between MAO-A genotype and maltreatment in the risk for conduct disorder: failure to confirm in adolescent patients." The American Journal of Psychiatry 163(6): 1019-1025.