University of Massachusetts at Boston

Critical and Creative Thinking graduate program, Science in a Changing World track

College of Advancing & Professional Studies

Biology in Society: Critical Thinking

CrCrTh 645/ Bio 545

Syllabus, Spring 2019

I. Quick access to key information and links to bookmark on your browser POST-IT the start of each component in your printed version of this syllabus

Peter Taylor, Science in a Changing World graduate track
Morgan Thompson
PT: 617-287-7636 (but email gets a speedier response)
MT: (by email only)
Wheatley 4th floor, room 170 (on right near end of main long corridor)
Office hours (also phone& zoom):
PT: (Tu, W 2.40-3.40 & W 7-8)
MT: (W 2-3:20; Th 4-5)
Class time & location
Weds 4-6.45pm, W-4-170 (Online students join all course sessions by zoom on
Report glitches in online materials
using this form
BOOKMARK THIS! Blog for submitting work; peer reviewing & other comments related to the course; links to password-protected readings and recordings
Bookmarked URLs shows relevant URLs bookmarked by instructors and (optionally) students who join this diigo group

II. Information to get started, orient yourself, and refer back to from time to time

Current and historical cases are used to examine the political, ethical, and other social dimensions of the life sciences. Close examination of developments in the life sciences can lead to questions about the social influences shaping scientists' work or its application. This, in turn, can lead to new questions and alternative approaches for educators, biologists, health professionals, and concerned citizens.

Critical thinking about the diverse influences shaping the life sciences. Topics include evolution and natural selection; heredity, development and genetic determinism; biotechnology and reproductive interventions. We interpret episodes in science, past and present, in light of scientists' historical location, economic and political interests, use of language, and ideas about causality and responsibility.

You address the course material on a number of levels:

You undertake individual semester-long "learning/engaging" project in an area of the life sciences in their social context about which you are interested in engaging others in learning and critical thinking. Each week you adopt or adapt the themes and activities from the previous session to apply to your project area. This provides many tools and perspectives on self-directed research (and thus serves as a research seminar for honors students).

Each session has 3 parts:

Readings and exercises follow up on the mini-lecture and prepare you for the next meeting. (Students who miss a session can listen to the recordings of the mini-lecture and class meeting, undertake the activities, and, well before the next meeting, post on the blog their reflections related to four separate points spread across the class meeting.)

Each session is followed up in 3 ways:

Individually and as a group, you already know a lot about learning, teaching, biology, society, and critical thinking. If this knowledge is elicited and affirmed, you are more able to learn from others. Many activities can help the course develop as a learning community, such as, weekly check-in on how you adopted/adapted themes, contributions on the chapters, peer commenting, miscellaneous reflections using the blog, and pair-wise or small-group work in class sessions. Over the course of the semester, you are encouraged to develop trust that there is insight in every response and share your not-yet-stable aspects.

Through activities, such as the Critical Incident Questionnaire, students are encouraged to approach this course as a work-in-progress. Instead of harboring criticisms to submit after the fact, we can find opportunities to affirm what is working well and suggest directions for further development.

Readings available for download from link on blog (accessible to students only).

Recommended to help with writing, research, and group processes:

PREREQUISITES and preparation assumed for this course
Graduate standing or permission of instructor. In lieu of other formal prerequisites, your previous studies should have prepared you to

  • Make bookmarks on your browser to quick access links (see sect. I of syllabus); Set up access to online bibliographic databases via the library; Arrange bibliographic software for references; Accept the invite to join the blog; Organize your computer (e.g., separate folders/directories for course work, downloaded readings, etc., replicate this file organization on a flash drive or other backup medium, and have a system for synchronizing and backing up files--see research competencies for more detail and other suggestions.) Face2face students: Bring laptop if you have one, registered for eduroam or UMB wifi, to sessions 0, 1, 2, 7, 13.
  • For students from a distance: Do a test run of joining the zoom site; Establish high bandwidth internet access (e.g., ethernet cable into modem); Procure and use reliable headset; Practice muting when not speaking and screensharing of document.

  • WRITING SUPPORT: For graduate students, see

    ACCOMMODATIONS: Sections 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 offer guidelines for curriculum modifications and adaptations for students with documented disabilities. The student must present any adaptation recommendations to the professors within a reasonable period, preferably by the end of the Drop/Add period.

    CODE OF CONDUCT: The University's Student Code of Conduct exists to maintain and protect an environment conducive to learning. It sets clear standards of respect for members of the University community and their property, as well as laying out the procedures for addressing unacceptable conduct. Students can expect faculty members and the Office of the Dean of Students to look after the welfare of the University community and, at the same time, to take an educational approach in which students violating the Code might learn from their mistakes and understand how their behavior affects others.

    Students are advised to retain a copy of this syllabus in personal files for use when applying for certification, licensure, or transfer credit.

    This syllabus is subject to change, but workload expectations will not be increased after the semester starts. (Version 20 February '19)

    III. Contract: Course requirements and assessment

    A. Written assignments (2/3 of grade)
    A semester-long "learning/engaging" project allows you to adopt or adapt the critical thinking themes and activities from each session into an area of your choice provided that it connects the life sciences to their social context. The area should be one about which you are interested in engaging others in learning and critical thinking. Engagement might range from teaching, to activism, to personal/professional development. It also means you are engaged—the area should also be one you want to learn more about. A sequence of 12 assignments is required: initial description (draft due session 3); installments (350-600 words) in which you adopt or adapt the themes and activities from sessions 3-10 (initial drafts due sessions 4-11); presentation (in session 12); complete draft report (due session 12); and final (1500-2500 words) report (due one week after session 13).

    Initial description: Building on what you arrive at after the in-class workshop of session 2 and comments from the instructors, compose a paragraph (or two) that conveys
    Installments, in which you adopt or adapt the critical thinking themes and activities from each session 3-10 (350-600 words; drafts due sessions 4-11; revisions due a week after comments from the instructors are posted):

    Presentation, 10 minutes (to be confirmed) for presentation and discussion. Quickly set the scene -- reminding listeners of your area of biology in society and the audience that you are trying to engage in critical thinking and learning -- then convey the way your thinking evolved over the semester, including any stumbling blocks, and, in order to prime discussion and feedback, express where you need to develop your thinking further about how to engage your audience in critical thinking and learning.

    Report: A synthesis of the installments highlighting the exercises, activities, themes you use to engage your audience in critical thinking and learning, but note:

    Participation and contribution to the class process (1/3 of grade)

    B. In order to get oriented to the various course materials and mechanics, complete the "syllabus quiz" and post as a comment on the syllabus quiz blog post.
    C. Building learning community
    C1. Prepared participation and attendance at class meetings (=13 items)

    C2. Contributions to the revision of the chapters [previously called "cases"] introduced in sessions 2-11 or to an annotated collection of new readings and other resources (due start of sessions 3-12; 6 times = 6 items)

    D. Weekly check-in on how you adopted/adapted themes (sessions 3-11) (=9 items)

    E. Office hours with the instructors on your project and other assignments, by sessions 6 and 10 (=2 items)

    F. Peer commentary on other students' installments, initial description & draft report (6 times = 6 items, due by session after posting, sessions 4-13)

    G. Assignment Checklist Filled-in during semester and submitted to instructors by email at time of final submissions (1 item).

    H. Process review (posted to blog) -- Identify 4-6 examples that capture the process of development of your work and thinking about fostering “critical thinking about the diverse influences shaping the life sciences.” Journaling, freewriting, drafts, etc. may be included, that is, not simply your best products. Explain your choices in a 250-500 word cover note and through annotations for each item. (Examples of past students' process reviews will be linked to the Readings [accessed via the blog].)

    I. Narrative course evaluation completed via before time of final submissions.


    For each quality "fulfilled very well" you get * * OR * if you "did an OK job, but there was room for more development/attention." You get no stars for "to be honest, this still needs serious attention." Total of **s x 5/6 = extra points added to the 80 points for automatic B+ grade.
    1. A sequence of assignments keeping to the weekly due dates with timely revisions,

    2. often revised thoroughly and with new thinking in response to comments.

    3. Project innovative, well planned and carried out with considerable initiative, and

    4. indicates that you will be able to engage others in learning and critical thinking on your topic.

    5. Project report clear and well structured,

    6. with supporting references and detail, and professionally presented.

    7. Active, prepared participation for and learning from session activities.

    Active contribution to building the class as learning community, evident in
    8. contributions to the revision of the chapters and to the annotated reading and resource list, and

    9. comments on presentations and peer review of drafts.

    Weekly check-ins, installments, and process review, which show:
    10. Consistent work outside sessions,

    11. deep reflection on your development through the semester, and

    12. map of the future directions in which you plan to develop.

    IV. Schedule of classes: What is expected each session and why -- how each session contributes to the unfolding of the course


    0 (1/30) Pre-course meeting to get set up
    1 (2/6) Introductions to the course, the other participants, and project-based learning (PBL)
    2 (2/13) Workshop to develop initial ideas of activities to engage others in critical thinking about the life sciences in their social context
    3 (2/20) Interpreting ideas about nature as ideas about society
    4 (2/27) Biological origin stories and their structure
    5 (3/6) Multiple layers of a scientific theory: Reconstructing Darwin's presentation of natural selection
    6 (3/20) What causes a disease? -- Beriberi (and field trip related to session 3)
    7 (3/27) Metaphors of control and coordination in development
    8 (4/3) What causes a disease? -- Pellagra (Styles of causal explanation & their relation to ideas about politics or social action)
    9 (4/10) How changeable are IQ test scores?
    10 (4/17) Social negotiations around genetic screening
    11 (4/24) Intersecting processes -- Complexities of environment and development in the age of DNA
    12 (5/1) Presentations on learning/engagement units and their development over the semester
    13 (5/8) Taking Stock of Course: Where have we come and where do we go from here?
    No class 5/15.

    The mini-lecture introducing each session happens at the end of the previous class. Preparation for each class is detailed on the link given for each session. The following check-ins, assignments, and participation items are not listed in the schedule after the first time:

    Session 0 Preview & Set Up

    4pm Face2face honors students (optional for graduate students): Course description; Conception of research running through the course; Interview students from previous offering of course
    5pm Online students only: Practice connecting with zoom and screensharing
    5pm Face2face honors students (optional for graduate students): finding your way around the course materials via initial work on "syllabus quiz"
    5.30pm Face2Face and online mutual support on finding your way around the course materials

    Session 1 Introductions

    Preparation: Reading: Taylor, "We know more..."
    Syllabus quiz, which includes: review the syllabus; rhythm of sessions; get set-up to use the internet and computers; etc.
    Face2face students: Bring laptop to class if you have one; sign up for UMB wifi on it

    Session (2/6):
    a. Personal and professional development (PPD) goals (worksheet); Fellow students and their concerns
    b. Rapid Project-based learning activity (worksheet)
    Follow-up:Sign up for first conference, to help get on top of course materials and expectations, to discuss project ideas, etc.
    Post PPD worksheet on the blog under Profile category (set as "private" if you wish)
    Work due this session: Syllabus quiz

    Session 2 Project-based learning (PBL) about biology in society

    Mini-lecture (given 2/6): Project-based learning

    Preparation: Read the PBL guided tour and two PBL cases based on an embryo mix up (details (see #1 & 2))
    Bring laptop to class if you have one
    Session (2/13):
    a. Dialogue hour on PBL and comparison of the two cases.
    b. Workshop to generate initial ideas for semester-long "learning/engaging" project (Session2Worksheet)
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter and PBL guidelines introduced in the session. Use blog post to make suggestions or to provide an annotation to a new reading or other resource.
    Reading (optional): Greenwald, "Learning from problems"

    Session 3. Interpreting ideas about nature as ideas about society, which involves exposing what is only implicit, what is not literally stated

    Mini-lecture (given 2/13): Interpreting images of society and nature in the West since the middle ages (slide show)

    Preparation: Reading: Williams, "Ideas of nature" (details (see #1 & 2))
    Session (2/20):
    Check-in: Description of your project and how you adopted/adapted themes from last class.
    Review timelines of changing and contrasting ideas of nature.
    Multi-party conversation among contrasting views about nature (Session3Worksheet)
    Part 2: March 20, 3-5pm for facetoface students: "Scavenger hunt" in Harvard Museum of Natural History to identify features that are consistent or discordant with the theme of the session (Session3Worksheetb). (Online students identify a local natural history museum, zoo, or aquarium to visit.)
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter.
    Reading (optional): Berger, "Why look at animals," Worster, chaps. 1 & 2.
    Work due this session: Initial description of your semester-long "learning/engaging" project, including how you would adopt or adapt PBL into your area.
    Comment posted on this link to make suggestions about last session's chapter or to provide an annotation to a new reading or other resource related to the chapter.

    Session 4. Biological origin stories and their structure

    Mini-lecture (given 2/20): The structure of Genesis, chapter 1

    Preparation: Readings: Martin, "The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance," Lewin, "The storytellers," Hrdy, "An Initial Inequality."
    Examine biology texts for the gender bias claimed by Martin and others (details (see #1 & 2))
    Session (2/27):
    Pairwise discussion of Martin's interpretation and analysis of structure of Hrdy, followed by whole-class discussion
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter
    Reading (optional): Landau, "Human Evolution as Narrative," Beldecos, et al. "The importance of feminist critique," Fausto-Sterling, "Society writes biology," "Life in XY Corral"
    Work due this session: Installment of your semester-long "learning/engaging" project, adapting the themes and/or activities of the previous session.
    Comment posted on appropriate post on the blog to make suggestions about last session's chapter or to provide an annotation to a new reading or other resource related to the chapter.
    This work due is not repeated in the syllabus from this point on.

    Session 5. How did Darwin try to convince people of Natural selection as the mechanism of evolution? (Multiple layers of a scientific theory--argument, analogy, metaphor, and defences)

    Mini-lecture (given 2/27): Introduction to close reading of Darwin. Natural selection as a metaphor.

    Preparation: Reading: Darwin, On the Origin of Species, Introduction & Chaps. 1, 3, part of 4, using Session5Worksheet (details (see #1 & 2))
    Session (3/6): Close reading , using Session5Worksheet and reconstruction of Darwin's exposition of his theory of natural selection.
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter
    Readings (optional): Moore, "Socializing Darwin," Orel, "Scientific animal breeding," Rudge, "Does being wrong," Taylor, "Natural Selection: A heavy hand."

    Session 6. What causes a disease?--Beriberi

    Mini-lecture (given 3/6): Introduction to the case and historical case-based learning

    Preparation: This session involves completion of programmed, historical case-based learning that happens outside the class meeting. It is asynchronous and you can start any time. It will work best if you all try to complete it by Wednesday, 3/20. (case, with instructions at the start)
    Session 3/20: Continuation of session 3 (above): Field Trip to a Natural History Museum, zoo, or aquarium, using worksheet to guide your exploration. For local students, visit 26 Oxford St., Cambridge. Bring student ID or MA license to get in free, arrive any time after 3pm. Meet outside Museum at 5pm to go to the Greenhouse Cafe for debriefing and (optional) dinner.
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter
    Work due this session: First office hours conference must be completed before class 6 to discuss the course and course project. Schedule second meeting before class 10.

    Session 7. Metaphors of control and coordination in development

    Mini-lecture (given by 18-minute audio lecture): Metaphors in science and in interpretation of science & Multiple views of heredity c. 1900

    Preparation: Reading: Gilbert, "Cellular Politics," "Animal development," Lakoff and Johnson, "Concepts We Live By" (on metaphors) (details (see #1 & 2))
    Bring laptop to class if you have one
    Session (3/27):
    Game of Life and analogies with Development
    Inventing alternative metaphors of control and co-ordination, incl. discussion of Just vs. Goldschmidt
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter
    Goodwin, How the Leopard Changed its Spots, Oyama, "Boundaries," Sapp, "Struggle for Authority"

    Session 8. What causes a disease?--the consequences of hereditarianism in the case of pellagra

    Mini-lecture (given 3/27): Styles of causal explanation & their relation to ideas about politics/social action: Review of beriberi case & introduction to pellagra

    Preparation: Reading: Chase, "False Correlations = Real Deaths" (details (see #1 & 2))
    Session (4/3):
    Take the roles of Goldberger and Davenport to convince others to act on your scientific account
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter
    Reading (optional): Harkness, "Vivisectors and vivishooters" (human experimentation); Marks, "Epidemiologists explain"

    Session 9. How changeable are IQ test scores?

    Mini-lecture (given 4/3): Interpreting parent-offspring height patterns

    Preparation: Lewontin-Jensen-Lewontin exchange on intelligence (details (see #1 & 2))
    Session (4/10):
    Map arguments, counter-arguments, and missing arguments in the exchange
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter
    Reading (optional): American Psychological Association, "New model of IQ development"

    Session 10. Social negotiations around genetic screening

    Mini-lecture (given 4/10): PKU--Substituting a genetic condition for chronic illness and second-generation effects (& introduction to intersecting processes)

    Preparation: Readings: Rapp, "Moral pioneers," Paul, "The history of newborn phenylketonuria screening" (details (see #1 & 2))
    Session (4/17):
    Design a forum to help supplement advances in genetic screening with communities developing a) greater tolerance for normal variation; b) social measures to care for people suffering from abnormal variation; and/or c) multiple voices/constituencies/ethical positions around gene-based medicine.
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapters on PKU and on genetic screening
    Reading (optional): Yoxen, 157-173
    Work due this session: Second office hours meeting must be completed before class 10 to discuss evolving course projects.

    Session 11. Intersecting processes -- Complexities of environment and development in the age of DNA

    Mini-lecture (given 4/17): Intersecting processes in the social origins of mental illness

    Preparation: Readings: Taylor, "What can we do," American Psychological Association, "New model of IQ development" (details (see #1 & 2))
    Session (4/24):
    Diagramming intersecting processes (to analyze change as something produced by intersecting economic, political, linguistic, and scientific processes operating at different scales)
    Follow-up: Contributions to revision of the chapter
    Reading (optional): Taylor, "Distributed agency," Underhill, "Life shaped," Freese et al., "Rebel without a cause," Pollitt, "When is a mother"

    Session 12. Presentations on learning/engagement units and their development over the semester
    Workshop (run on 4/24) on preparing report and presentation; preceded by a mini-lecture on how the themes of the course add up.

    Preparation: Presentations on learning/engagement units and their development over the semester (for facetoface studewnts: email visual aids to instructors in advance). Length, incl. feedback time = 10 minutes (to be confirmed)

    Session (5/1):
    10-minute Presentations on learning/engagement units and their development over the semester, with peer comments
    Follow-up: Commentary on another student's draft report
    Work due this session: Complete Draft of Project Report, uploaded to blog

    Session 13. Taking Stock of Course: Where have we come and where do we go from here?

    Preparation: Reading: Taylor, "We know more..."
    Review your profiles from week 1 on what you brought to the course and where you would like to be by the end.
    Bring laptop to class if you have one

    Session (5/8):
    Dialogue hour on how we might foster critical thinking about science-in-society
    Course evaluations, via

    Work due this session: Commentary on another student's draft report, uploaded to blog

    One week after session 13 Work due: Final version of Project Report
    Process Review
    Assignment Check-list maintained by student & scanned and submitted to instructors by email


    (For pdfs of readings, use the link on the password-protected course blog. For deeper consideration of the issues raised in both biomedical sciences and in interpretation, critical thinking, and ethical and political analysis, review student and instructor comments on the chapters for annotated reading suggestions.)

    Allchin, D. (n.d.) "Of rice and men." SHiPS Resource Center.

    American Psychological Association (2001). "New model of IQ development accounts for ways that even small environmental changes can have a big impact, while still crediting the influence of genes." (Apr. 15), (viewed 16 Nov. 2014).

    Beldecos, A., et al. (1989). "The importance of feminist critique for contemporary cell biology." Feminism and science. ed. N. Tuana. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 172-187.

    Berger, J. (1980). "Why Look at Animals?," in About Looking. New York: Pantheon Books, 1-26.

    Chase, A. (1977). "False Correlations = Real Deaths," in The Legacy of Malthus. NY: Knopf, 201-225.

    Daniel, D., C. Fauske, P. Galeno and D. Mael (2001). Take Charge of Your Writing: Discovering Writing Through Self-Assessment. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

    Darwin, C. 1859 [1964]). Introduction & Chapters 1, 3, part of 4. In On the Origin of Species. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1-43, 60-96.

    Elbow, P. (1981). Writing with Power. New York: Oxford University Press, chapters 2, 3, 13

    Fausto-Sterling, A. (1987). "Society writes biology/ biology constructs gender." Daedalus 116(4): 61-76.

    Fausto-Sterling, A. (1989). "Life in the XY Corral." Women's Studies Int. Forum 12: 319-326 only.

    Freese, J., B. Powell and L. C. Steelman (1999). "Rebel without a cause or effect; Birth order and social attitudes."American Sociological Review 64: 207-231.

    Gilbert, S. F. (1988). "Cellular Politics." In The American Development of Biology, ed. R. Rainger, K. Benson, and J. Maienschein. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 311-345.

    Gilbert, S. F. (1995) "An introduction to animal development." in Developmental Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1-34

    Goodwin, B. (1994). How the Leopard Changed Its Spots. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, vii-xiii,18-41,77-114,169-181,238-243.

    Greenwald, N. (2000). "Learning from Problems." The Science Teacher 67(April): 28-32.
    Harkness, J. M. (1994). "Vivisectors and vivishooters: Experimentation on American prisoners in the early decades of the twentieth century," ms.

    Hrdy, S. B. (1981). "An Initial Inequality," in The Woman That Never Evolved. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 20-23.

    Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson. (1980). "Concepts We Live By." In Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 3-6, 87-105, & 156-158.

    Landau, M. (1984). "Human Evolution as Narrative." American Scientist 72 (May-June): 262-268.

    Lewin, R. (1987). "The storytellers," in Bones of contention: Controversies in the search for human origins. New York, Simon & Schuster, 30-46

    Marks, H. M. (2003). "Epidemiologists Explain Pellagra: Gender, Race, and Political Economy in the Work of Edgar Sydenstricker." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 58(1): 34-55.

    Martin, E. (1991). "The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles," Signs 16(3): 485-501.

    Moore, J. (1986). "Socializing Darwinism: Historiography and the Fortunes of a Phrase," in L. Levidow (Ed.),Science as Politics. London, Free Association Books, 39-80.

    Orel, V. and R. Wood (2000). "Scientific animal breeding in Moravia before and after the rediscovery of Mendel's theory." Quarterly Review of Biology 75(2): 149-157.

    Oyama, S. (2006). "Boundaries and (Constructive) Interaction". Pp. 272-289 in Genes in Development. Re-reading the Molecular Paradigm, E. M. Neumann-Held and C. Rehmann-Sutter (Eds.) Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Paul, D. (1997). "Appendix 5. The history of newborn phenylketonuria screening in the U.S.," in N. A. Holtzman and M. S. Watson (Eds.), Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States. Washington, DC: NIH-DOE Working Group on the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Human Genome Research, 137-159.

    Pollitt, K. (1990). "When is a mother not a mother?" The Nation, 31 Dec., 840-6.

    Rapp, R. "Moral Pioneers: Women, Men & Fetuses." Women & Health 13 (1/2, 1988): 101-116.

    Rudge, D. W. (2000). "Does being wrong make Kettlewell wrong for science teaching?" Journal of Biology Education 35(1): 5-12.

    Sapp, J. (1983). "The Struggle for Authority in the Field of Heredity." Journal of the History of Biology 16 (3): 311-318, 327-342.

    Taylor, P. J. (1998). "Natural Selection: A heavy hand in biological and social thought." Science as Culture 7(1): 5-32.

    Taylor, P. J. (2001). "Distributed agency within intersecting ecological, social, and scientific processes," in S. Oyama, P. Griffiths and R. Gray (Eds.), Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 313-332.

    Taylor, P. J. (2002). "We know more than we are, at first, prepared to acknowledge: Journeying to develop critical thinking." Working Papers in Critical, Creative and Reflective Practice. Retrieved 20 November 2018 from

    Taylor, P. J. (2004). "What can we do? -- Moving debates over genetic determinism in new directions." Science as Culture 13(3): 331-355.

    Taylor, P. J. (2008). "Why was Galton so concerned about 'regression to the mean'--A contribution to interpreting and changing science and society." DataCritica 2(2): 3-22.

    Taylor, P. (2019). The Social Construction of Life: Critical Thinking about Biology and Society. Work in progress. Retrieved from

    Underhill, W. (1999). "Shaped by life in the womb." Newsweek(Sep. 27): 51-57.

    Williams, R. (1980). "Ideas of Nature," in Problems in Materialism and Culture. London, Verso, 67-85.

    Woodhead, M. (1988). "When psychology informs public policy." American Psychologist 43(6): 443-454.

    Worster, D. (1985). Nature's Economy, Cambridge U. P., chapters 1 & 2.

    Yoxen, E. (1986). Unnatural Selection? London: Heinemann, 1-17, 157-173.