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(note:  herbs/plants ref. w/"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- where possible.)

or   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)


See:  Quicksilver, Oil of Talk

"...For the same use, is a glass stone used, that shines like Silver.  But no better water is prepared, then from Talk, or Quicksilver, as I shall show in that which follows..."

"...how Talk may be Dissolved into water or Oil.  We shall here only set down, how it may be fitted to women's use.  Of all such ways are used, I shall set forth such as I have tried to be good.  Beat Talk in a Mortar of metal..."


"...For while they fight, they strive to be gone, and they are sometime held in the Falcon's Talons, and are wounded with diverse strokes..."


"...Others say, with Oil of Peter, Duck's grease, and Pith of the Reed of Ferula, Brimstone, and as others think, with Oil, Tallow, Colophonia, Camphire, Rosin, Tow. .."

"...Mingle these with Oil to make it soft.  Then cover the Iron in this well, and dry it, and bury it in burning coals.  And, as I said, you may use Tallow and Butter the same way. .."


"... Cicero reports, that Pythagoras made a young man more calm by a flower tune, who was a Tancomonite, and was Whitled with Wine, and mad for a Whore, and spurred forward by a Phrygian tune..."

Tanners Water   

"...Polish a Poniard, Sword or Knife, very well with Powder of Emril and oil, and then cleanse it with chalk, that no part may be dark, but that it may glister all over.  Then wet it all with juice of lemmons mingled with Tanners water, that is made with Vitriol..."


"...There is an Herb commonly called Argentaria, or Argentina, or Wild Tansey, whos leaves are greeen above, but on the backside they shine of a silver color..."


"...Then bind them about with cords, and dip them in Tar three or four times, that they may be well fenced about, lest being discharged by the violence of a Brass Cannon, they should break in pieces..."


 "...In time past there was great store of Spiders in Aquilia, which they commonly call Tarantula..."


See:  Strangle-tare

A weed that grows among wheat and other grain; alleged by modern naturalists to be the Lolium temulentum, or darnel.

 "...And when he found much Tares growing in the wheat, but very little in the Barley, he put the same experiment in other grain practice, and at last found in Pulse a hard and round Fetch, and moreover, that the herb Axesceed did grow among Pulse ..."

"...The Olive, Wild Olive, Tares, Corn in Straw, Grass, and they are all the better sprinkled in Brine, but he more effectual they will be if she Fast three days before..."

Tarentine Nut   

"...If you would produce a Tarentine Nut, Palladius says, you must water the tree with Lye thrice a month throughout the whole year, and so you may obtain your purpose..."


"...But Tarentinus speaks of this matter more precisely.  If, says he, you cut the stock of a Black Poplar piecemeal into the earth, and pour upon it some Leaven that has been steeped in water, there will soon grow up some Poplar Toadstools..."

"..Must Engraff them into a Mulberry tree.  For this means the Pears will grow red, as Tarentinus and Diophanes do witness..."


Tartar the deposit of wine, means “infernal stuff,” being derived from the word Tartaros (q.v.). Paracelsus says, “It is so called because it produces oil, water, tincture, and salt, which burn the patient as the fires of Tartarus burn.”

"...To make wine of honey...then take two pounds of red wine Tartar, and boil them in water till they be dissolved..."

"...A Salt may be made of Thapsia.  It is very good to remove the Stone in the bladder or kidneys, and to dissolve the Tartar, or viscous Concrescency..."


"...By the same way, in the very same day, from Olympi to Aegina, was the victory of Taurosthenes declared to his father..."


"... It is certain, that those who live upon that are never troubled with Dysentery, Tenasmus, or any diseases of the belly..."


Tenuity - Thinness, smallness in diameter; exility; thinness, applied to a broad substance, and slenderness, applied to one that is long; as the tenuity of paper or of a leaf; the tenuity of a hair or filament. . Rarity; rareness; thinness; as of a fluid; as the tenuity of the air in the higher regions of the atmosphere; the tenuity of the blood. Poverty.

"...That the Wheatmeal may be managed with the life of its heat, which is the offspring of Celestial fire.  By nature it is of such Tenuity, that being raised with its heat, it will make the lump swell so much, that it will come up to the top of the vessel..."

Terra Lemnia   

See:   Lemina

"...Or thus may you restrain that part of common Whores, with Galls, Gums, whites of Eggs, Dragon's blood, Acacia, Plantain, Hypocistis, Balanstia, Mastick, Cypress nuts, Grape skins, Acorn cups.  Or in that hollow part where the Glans breaks forth, and gaping, shows the Nucleus, with Mastick and Terra Lemnia..."


"...Now I will recite those Distillations, which draw out neither water nor Oil , but a middle between the both.  For the Terrene parts are forced up, turned into water by the vehemency of the fire..."


Terrify - To menace or threaten; intimidate.

"...Pliny, the Daffodil is eaten with the seed and head Terrified.  But this roasted in the embers as Hesiod affirms, is eaten with Oil also Braised with Figs, it is eaten with great pleasure..."

"... Which  Pliny, writes of.  Dates that are very dry of Thebes and Arabia, that are slender and very lean, with a continual vapour they are Terrified, and are covered rather with a shell then a skin..."


"...For in some membranes, where the Testes are bound together, under which there are some soft Carbuncles, and tender, that are called Lions Fat..."


"...the Herb Ragwort is forcible unto; for they grow double, a greater and a smaller, the greater helps generation, and the smaller hinders it. And this Herb is called Testiculus..."


"...Against Tetters...Distil water from the roots of Sowredock, and add to every pound of these, of Pompions and Saltpeter, half an ounce.  Tartar of White Wine, two ounces.  Let them soak for some days..."

"...Take Saltpeter, three ounces, Oil of bitter Almonds, two pounds, of Squils, half a pound.  One Lemon without the Pills.  Mingle them, and let them ferment three days.  Then, with chemical instruments, extract the oil, and anoint your Tetters therewith, and they will be gone, though they seem to turn to a Leprosy..."


"...Wherefore cut off that part of the semicircle, which is situated from a Pentagon as far as a Tetragon, as it were the band of the circle..."


"... Terpander and Aaron of Methymna, cured the men of Lesbos and Jonia of great diseases.  Asclepiades, a physitian, cured deaf people by a trumpet, and by singing he stilled the sedicious people..."

Thales of Miletus /  Thales Milerius          

Thales of Miletus, c.636-c.546 BC, was the first known Greek philosopher and scientist. Because none of his writing survives, it is difficult to separate fact from legend in the accounts of his views. He achieved renown as a military advisor and engineer and was evidently a shrewd man of affairs. Stories of his travels to Egypt and Babylon rest on dubious inferences. He is said to have predicted an eclipse of the Sun in 585 BC.

"...Thales, as soon as he saw it, told Periander, that he did not esteem it as a strange and monstrous thing, which the gods had sent to protend and betoken the sedition's and commotion's likely to ensue, as Diocese thought of it, but rather as a natural thing..."

"... Thales Milerius used a Harp, against the Plague, which could be of no other Wood than the Vine-tree..."


"...If you wash the black and blue places with the juice of the leaves and roots of Thapsia made into cakes in the Sun, but one night, they will be taken away..."

"...A Salt may be made of Thapsia.  It is very good to remove the Stone in the bladder or kidneys, and to dissolve the Tartar, or viscous Concrescency..."


(See Loadstone)

"...There is a mountain in Ethiopia, not far off, that produces a stone called Theamedes, that drives away all iron from it. Dioscorides describes it thus..."

"...And again, in the same Ethiopia, there is a mountain that produces the stone Theamedes, that drives off Iron and rejects it ..."

Theatrical Glass  

"...In each of them you shall see several faces, and so quite round, as we see it often when people dance round, or in a theater, and therefore it is called a Theatrical Glass..."


(See Aconitum, Aconite, Monkshood, Dogs Bane, Theliphonum, PardalianchesMyoetonon,) 

"...Aconite called Theliphonum, from killing scorpions...."


"... Themistius says, that among animals, Pigeons have the best memory, as having a clear and refined mind..."


Themistocles, c.524-c.460 BC, one of the greatest statesmen of Athens, was the creator of the Athenian navy and, through it, of the Athenian empire. In 483 he persuaded Athens to build a fleet with revenue from newly discovered silver mines. Some reports alleged that Themistocles committed suicide when called upon to take part in a naval war against the Athenians.

"...so that this kind of fish breeds all times of the year, in shadowy and warm places, when the soil is heated, as in Attica, near to Salamnia, and in Marathon, where Themistocles got his famous victory..."


"...You may find many things in Theocritus and Virgil, of this kind (Enchantment)..."


"... For Hippace signifies Cheese made of Mares Milk, and is no herb.  Theodorus translated it Equestrem, as it were a root like Licorice, fit to drive away hunger and thirst..."


"...Oppianus in his Ixeutica says, that there is a bird known well enough, called Theocronus, which is generated of a male hawk, and a female eagle. .."


A Greek philosopher and scientist and Aristotle's pupil, Theophrastus, c.371-c.286 BC, headed the PERIPATETICS following Aristotle. Although he criticized some basic Aristotelian positions, Theophrastus's works--few of which are extant--were primarily developments of those of Aristotle, with the emphasis on the empirical and scientific. Theophrastus's own scientific works, particularly those in botany, were highly influential. Theophrastus is also known for his Doctrines of the Natural Philosophers; for Characters, a satirical study of ethical types; and for his contributions to logic.

"...And Theophrastus says, that the flower of the herb Lotum, is not only open and shut, but also sometimes hides, and sometimes shows here stalk for sunset to midnight, and this, says he, is done about the river Euphrates..."

"... Athenaus says, that dogs and crows are made drunk with an herb called Aenutra.  But Theophrastus, from whom he had it, says, that the root of Aenothera, given with wine, will make them more tame and gentle.  Whence Aenutra comes, by corruption of the word.  Theophrastus, his Aenothera is Rhododaphne..."


"... The hollow cave in Nymphaeum foreshows terrible things to the men of Apollonia.  As Theopompus writes, it increases by shower, and it casts forth Bitumen, that must be tempered with that fountain that cannot be rafted, otherwise t is more weak then any Bitumen is..."


"How a dead carcass may be kept long...Of Aloes wood half a pound, of the oil of Spicknard three ounces, of the powder of Rosemary flowers five, of burnt green Brass and Calcanthum two, of the best Theriack four..."


"...were excellent Magicians: as, amongst the Persians, Zoroastres the son of Orimafius, whom we spoke of before, amongst the Romans, Numa Pompilius; Thespion, amongst the Gymnosophists; Zamolxis, amongst the Thracians: Abbarais, amongst the Hyperboreans; Hermes, amongst the Egyptians and Budda among the Babylonians. Besides these, Apuleius reckons up Carinondas, Damigeron, Hifmoses, Apollonius, and Dardanus, who all followed Zoroastres and Osthanes. .."


"... Philarchus reports of another kind (women that kill whatever they look earnestly on), called Thibians in Pontus, who had two pupils in one eye, and in the other the picture of a Horse..."


 "...Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, Savory, Elder, Sage leaves, White Mint, Rosemary, Basil, Marjoram, Pennyroyal, Rosebuds, the roots of Betony, Pellitory, Snake-weed, White Thistle, Aristolochy, Elder, Cretan Dittany, Currants..."

"...And their tilled lands, those that are somewhat moist, when they lie fallow, bring forth Thistles..."


"...Homer was not ignorant of, who writing of skins and Thongs. A Thong, says he, of an Ox slain by force, for the skins of those creatures are tougher and stronger, when they die not by old age or of diseases, but are slain..."

Thos / Thoes  

"...A strong and swift dog gendred of a kind of Wolf called Thos,..."

"...Oppianus says, that the panther and the wolf do gender this Thoes, and yet he is of neither kind..."


"...Theophrastus would have Hemlock gathered and fetched from Sufa, because Thrasias was of opinion, that there it might safely be taken, and in other very cold places. For whereas in Athens the juice of it's poison, odious among the Athenians, because it is given to kill men in common executions, and Socrates there taking it, died presently..."

Thracian Stone    

"...Dioscorides says, that the Thracian Stone is bred in a certain river of Scythia, the name of it is Pontus.  It has the force of Jet, they say it is inflamed by water, and quenched with oil, like as Bitumen..."


"...How a householder may provide himself with many sorts of Thread..."

"...also there is made Thread of Aloes in America.  It is hard, white, and most perfect..."


"...run toward the Loadstone, touching it, that is the very point of attraction, and the beams of its virtue are sent round about them from that point.  Wherefore the farther from that point the Iron is, the more faintly and weakly will it move.  For the more forcible virtue nests in the center, as in its Throne..."


Thrush - Any one of numerous species of singing birds belonging to Turdus and allied genera. They are noted for the sweetness of their songs.

"... Fed thus, they will grow as fat as great Sappers in Fig time, and so tender, that they will melt in your mouth, and they taste better by far then Pheasants, Heathcocks, or Thrushes..."

"...The the foresaid dainties, namely Thrushes, Udders, Gnatsnappers, and many Eggs poured unto them, Oysters, Scallops, were thrust into his belly at his mouth..."


Thucydides, c.460-c.400 BC, the Athenian historian of the Peloponnesian war, is considered by many to be the greatest of the ancient Greek historians. Thucydides served as general in 424 but was banished from Athens in that year for his failure to protect Amphipolis from the Spartans. He returned from exile after the war ended in 404.

"..Thucidides says, that those that besieged Plataenenses, when the engines would do no good, they fell to fireworks.   For casting about the walls bundles of stuff, and throwing in fire, Brimstone and Pitch, they burnt the wall..."


"...Ticinus, a river in Italy, produces a fish called Thymalus, that is not taken with the dainty baits that other fish are, but only with the gnat, an enemy to man, and she delights in no other bait..."


"... The Tibarita, says Simaus, before they drank, fenced themselves by feeding on Coleworts.  Alexis..."


"... Columella says, that Tiberius the Emperour took great delight in the cucumbers that were thus ripened, which he had at all times of the year..."

"... Livia Augusta, when she was young and great with the child of Nero, by Caesar Tiberius, because she earnestly desired to bring first a boy.  She made use of this Omen to try it by..."


"...all these thing are to keep Dogs from barking.  Nigidius says, that Dogs will all day fly from him who pulls off a Tick from a Sow, and carries it a while about him..."

Tile tree  

"...Anyone may make letters upon wood, and not be suspected.  For they shall not be seen, but when we please.  Let the wood be fleshy and soft, of Poplar, or Tile tree, or suchlike..."


"...Other properties there are also of places and fountains, which he that would know, may learn out of Theophrastus, Timaus, Poffidonius, Hegefias, Aristides, Meirodorus, and the like, who have very diligently sought out, and registered the properties of places, and out of them, Pliny, Solinus, and such writers have gathered their books..."


Timoxenus, captain of the Scionaeans

"...Sometimes therefore they sought a way in the air, and used arrows for messengers, that none might intercept them.  Herodotus says, that Artabazus and Timoxenus did this, when one would declare anything to the other..."


"...One Timotheus, a musician, as often as he pleased would pay a Phrygian tune, and so enrage the mind of Alexander, that he ran presently to the wars..."


"...That is called a Parabolical Section, that more forcibly farther off and in shorter time, will set matter on fire.  That is opposite to it.  It will melt Lead and Tin..."

"John Baptist Porta - "Natural Magick" - Volumn XII "...Let it not be a Steel glass, because it cannot sustain the heat of burning, and by burning it loses its brightness.  Let it be therefore of glass a finger thick.  Let the Tin foil be of purged Antimony and Lead, such as they make in Germany..."


Tincture:  The finer and more volatile parts of a substance, separated by a solvent; an extract of a part of the substance of a body communicated to the solvent. . <medicine> A solution (commonly coloured) of medicinal substance in alcohol, usually more or less diluted; spirit containing medicinal substances in solution.

"...I shall teach how to give Silver a Tincture that it may show like to pure Gold, and after that, how it may be turned to a true Gold..."

"...A Tincture is the purest and most active part of a colored body extracted.  The noblest  Essence of a compound.  It is Extracted out of gems, flowers, roots, seeds, and such-like.  It differs from Quintessence thus, that it especially draws the color of the body from whence it is Extracted..."


 "...It is healthful, in these diseases, to apply bitter things to kill these Worms, called Tiners or Syrens.  Take the flowers of Myrtle trees, Broom-clary, boil them in Vinegar , till the Vinegar is consumed, then rub the ends of the hair continually with it..."


"...The falcon, seagull, the turtle, the blackbird, the vulture, the nightbird, called Scopes, perish with pomegranate kernels.  The Titling by the flower of willows.  The crow with Rocket seed..."


Leafy spurge was also known as 'Faitour's Grass' or 'Tithymal'  

"...The wild cucumber, and Coloquintida, kill mice.  If mice eat Tithymal, cut into small pieces, and mingled with flour and Metheglin, they will be blind.  So Chamaelion, Myacanthus, Realgar, namely, of live Brimstone, quicklime and Orpiment will do the same..."

"... Tumours and cavities are made by using to the part milk of Tithymal, as to the mouth, nose, eyes, especially where the skin is off, that by this remedy alone the face is deformed..."


 "...If, says he, you would make anyone smooth from hair, cast a Pale Frog into water, and boil it to a third part, and with that anoint the body.  By by Pale Frog we must understand a Toad..."

"...In Dariene, a Province of the new world, the air is most unwholesome, the place being muddy and full of stinking marshes, nay, the village is itself a marsh, where Toads are presently gendered of the drops wherewith they water their houses, as Peter Martyr