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(note:  herbs/plants ref. w/"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- where possible.)

or   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)


Painters Red   

"...This is only for friends.  Take nine parts of burnt Tin, seven of Lead, two of Cinnabaris.  Of Spanish Soder and Tartar, one part and a half.  Of the Blood stone one part, of Painters Red a fourth part..."


"...The like experiment to these is recorded by Palladius, and by other Greek writers, who show the way, how a Vine may bring forth clusters of Grapes that are white, but the stones of the Grapes black..." 

"... And Palladius says, that trees are joined together as it were, by carnal copulation, to the end that the fruit thereof might contain in it, all the excellencies of both the parents..."

Palate  \  Pallets     

"...I have thus far spoken to please and Palate.  Now I shall represent some merry Conceits to delight the guests.."

"...but for dainties also.  For seasoned with Sugar, and prepared for men's Pallets, and to quench feverish heats, they are carried about everywhere to be sold..."


"...the Palm, or Date tree, and the Damosin tree will grow to be of a larger and better size..."

"...If you preserve and lay up an Dates or Palms, says he (Theophrastus), you must make choice of those which grow in sandy grounds, as in that country which is called Syria..."

Pamphilus  / Pamphilius       

"... Pamphilus, a Husbandman prescribes, A certain time wherein to gather Cherries, that they may last long..."

"... The Cherry tree is very kindly to be grafted.  And you shall scarce ever have a good and a sweet Cherry, unless it be by grafting upon some other tree, as Pamphilus reports..."


"...and the Cities Hermopolis and Mendes, where Pan is honored for a god, and with him is likewise honored a he-goat, and there, as Pindarus reports, he-Goats have to do with women..."


"...if they are pound with Mastick.  Columella says, that the Olives which are called Orchites, and those which are called Panfiae, and the little round Olive called Radiolus, are to be knocked and beaten, and so cast into Brine..."


"...The Quintiles say you must take Panniers or earthen pots, and put into them some fine sifted earth mixed with Dung, that it may be somewhat liquid, and preventing the ordinary season, you must plant therein Cucumber seeds about the beginning of spring, and when the Sun shines, or that there is any heat or rain, they bring the Panniers forth into the air..."

"...Theophrastus shows us, that if a man sow Cucumber seeds in the wintertime, and water them with warm water, and lay them in the Sun, or else by the fire, and when seed time comes, put the whole Panniers of them into the ground..."


"...The beast Hyaena, and the Panther, are naturally at variance, therefore the skin of a dead Hyaena makes the Panther run away, nay, if you hang their several skins one against the other, the Panthers skin will lose the hairs..."

"...A Dog and a Wolf, a Lion and a Panther, an Ass and a Horse, a Partridge and a Hen, are of one bigness, and therefore may couple together, but a Horse and a Dog, or a Mare and an Elephant, or a Hen and a Sparrow cannot..."

Panic \ Panick        

Panic - A plant of the genus Panicum; panic grass; also, the edible grain of some species of panic grass. Panic grass (Bot.), any grass of the genus Panicum.

"...But then those taste best that feed on fat things, and eat wheat, millet, and Panick.  But such as eat Wormwood, their eggs are bitter..."

"...Some parts of France use Panick, but chiefly Aquitane.  But Italy about Po, add beans to it, without which they make nothing.  The people of Pontus prefer no meat before Panick.  Panick meal now adays is neglected by us and out of use, for it is dry and of small nourishment. .."


Pap - A soft food for infants, made of bread boiled or softtened in milk or water.

"...You shall make your Match  thus.  In a new test let the best Aqua Vita boil with Gunpowder, till it grows thick, and be like Pap..."

"...Thicken the Liquor either with Pigeon's Dung, finely sifted, or with Gunpowder, that it may be like Pap..."


"...And when we have bound them hard up, set them in the earth.  But the bond wherewith they are tied up, must be made of Paper or Parchment..."

"...Used Oil of Paper.  Namely, extracting it from burnt Paper..."


"...let the Papills be subtracted, as also the Privities with the Pith of the backbone.  Then hang up the body by the feet for three or four hours..."


"... Hecateus says, that the Egyptians grind barley to make a drink, and that the Macedonians drink Brytum made of Barley, and Parabia made of Millet, and rice, says Athenaus.  Also wine is made of rice.  For says Aelianus, when an elephant fights in war, they give hom not only wine of grapes, but rice also...."


"...Nor is ist far distant from that point, from the supersicies of the glass, called Parabolical, which must remain firm in that place which I said before.  Let experiment be made of its vertue, by threads passing from its center, or Iron wire, or hair.  And it is no matter whether it be Parabolical or Sphaerical..."

Parabolical Section  

"...That is called a Parabolical Section, that more forcibly farther off and in shorter time, will set matter on fire..."

Paracelsian / Paracelsians    

Paracelsian:  Of, pertaining to, or in conformity with, the practice of Paracelsus .

"...Of Charabes...I will deliver to you the way that I use.  For the Paracelsians do either conceal it, or not know it..."


The German physician and chemist Theophrastus Philipus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim, b. Nov. 10 or 14, 1493, d. Sept. 24, 1541, who called himself .Paracelsus, was a medical reformer who introduced a new concept of disease and the use of chemical medicines.

"...Paracelsus says, As the yolk and white of an Egg, becomes a chick by the heat of a Hen, so a bird burnt to ashes, and shut up in a vessel of Glass, and so laid under the mixture, will become a filmy humor, and then, if it be laid under a Hen, is enliven by her heat, and restored to herself like a Phoenix..."

"...The Weapon Salve...Given heretofore to Maximilian the Emperor, by Paracelsus, experimented by him, and was always very much accounted of by him while he lived..."


"...But this was a kind of a Moon-Calf, Paracletes said, that if you cut a Serpent in pieces, and hide him in a vessel of glass, under the mud, there will be gendered many Worms, which being nourished by the mud, will grow every one as big as a Serpent, so that of one Serpent may be a hundred generated..."


"...This may seem a Paradox to some..."


"...The same author (Thales) in his 'Parallels,' reports out of Agesilaus, his third book of Italian matters, that Fulvius Stella loathing the company of a woman, coupled himself with a mare, of whom he begot a very beautiful maiden-child, and she was called by a fit name, Epona..."


Parasite - One who frequents the tables of the rich, or who lives at another's expense, and earns his welcome by flattery; a hanger-on; a toady; a sycophant.

"...When the Parasite has new washed his hands and face, cast to him the towel to wipe himself.  And when it is wet, it will make his hands and face as black as Coal, that will very hardly be washed out with many washings...."


"...Preserve Beans... Is, to Parch them reasonably well, for so there will be less store of moisture in them, which will cause them to last the longer...."

"... Theophrastus writes, that in Apollonia and Tarentum, they preserve Beans long without any Parching at all. .."


"...And when we have bound them hard up, set them in the earth.  But the bond wherewith they are tied up, must be made of Paper or Parchment..."


(See Aconitum, Aconite, Monkshood, Dogs Bane, Theliphonum, PardalianchesMyoetonon,) 

"...Is reckoned Libards Bane, by whose root, powdered, and given with flesh, they are killed.  Flesh is strewn with Aconite, and panthers are killed if they taste thereof.  Their jaws and throat are presently in pain.  Therefore it is called Pardalianches..."


"...The white  (Cyprian Powder) is made of crude Parget washed in Rosewater, or other sweet water.  And adding Musk, Amber, Civet, and suchlike, it will smell at a good distance..."


"...The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the Larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose..."


Parmenides of Elea, c.515-c.450 BC, was one of the most important of the pre-Socratic philosophers. His long two-part poem survives in substantial fragments. Parmenides turns philosophy away from questions of cosmos formation to what he sees as a prior question: What must the world be like if it is to be intelligible? The poem argues that the world must be unitary, indestructible, indivisible, and unchangeable. The world as it presents itself to the senses--full of change and variety--is "unthinkable and unsayable." Ordinary beliefs are called mere arbitrary conventions.

"...But Hippon and Critias held that the vapors of the elements were the first beginnings; Parmenides held that their qualities were the principles; for all things (said he) consist of cold and heat. .."

"...Parmenides quite contrary affirmed, that males were especially generated towards the North, as having in them more solidity and thickness, and females especially towards the South, as being more loose and open, according to the disposition of the place..."


"...But let the lamp stand something from the Parement, or the Chickens allured by the light, should pick at it and be burned by it..."


"...The herb called Bears-foot, that which grows on the Hill Oeta and Parnasfus, is very excellent, but elsewhere, of small force..."


Petroselinum, the specific name of the Parsley, from which our English name is derived, is of classic origin, and is said to have been assigned to it by Dioscorides. The Ancients distinguished between two plants Selinon, one being the Celery (Apium graveolens) and called heleioselinon - i.e. 'Marsh selinon,' and the other - our parsley - Oreoselinon, 'Mountain selinon'; or petroselinum, signifying 'Rock selinon.' This last name in the Middle Ages became corrupted into Petrocilium - this was anglicized into Petersylinge, Persele, Persely and finally Parsley.

"...And to be short, in the same manner are extracted the oils out of the seeds of Carrot, Angelica, Marjoram, Rue, Rosemary, Parsley, Smallage and Dill, and suchlike..."

"...And the women of Salerium, in times past, were wont to use the juice of Parsley and Leeks, at the beginning of their conception, and especially about the time of their quickening, thereby to destroy this kind of vermin with them..."


"...There is a kind of spider which destroys the Hart, except presently they eat Wild Ivy, and whensoever they light upon any poisonous food, they cure themselves with the Artichoke, and against serpents they prepare and arm them selves with Wild Parsnip, so do the Ring-doves, Coughs, and Blackbirds use Bay leaves..."


"...The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose..."

"...Boetius teaches you thus;  You shall easily hunt such Partridge, if you cast unto them meal wet in Wine.  For every bird is soon taken with it..."


"...Artificers call those pellets which are made of salts, and the forenamed powder and water, Pastils..."

"...Make your Pastils of earth, and double as much Glass.  Set it a whole night in the fire of reverberation, and let it melt in a convenient vessel, stirring it with an Iron rod..."



"...When the fisherman sees the Pastinaca, or Ray, swimming, he leaps ridiculously in his boat, and begins to play on the pipe..."


Bishop of Antioch

"...a Magician is nothing else but one that expounds and studies divine things; and it is the general name of wise-men in that country. St. Jerome writing to Paulinus, says, that Apollonius Tyaneus was a Magician , as the people thought; or a philosopher, as the Pythagoreans esteemed him..."

Paulus Aegineta  

 "...Nicander does mightily cry up for an Antidote against Poison, Fountain water in which Gold had been quenched.  Supposing, that it imparts some of its Virtue to the water in the extinction.  Dioscorides, Paulus Aegineta, and Aetius, affirm the same..."

Paulus, R.M.  

"...I knew at Venice, R.M. Paulus, the Venetian, that was busied in the same study.  He was Provincial of the Order of Servants, but now a most worthy advocate,..."


See:  Life of Pasanias (http://www.gmu.edu/departments/fld/CLASSICS/nep.paus.html)

"...For which cause the shepherds there drive away their flocks at that time, and feed them in that part of the country which lies farthest off from that river, as Pausanias writes in his Achaica..."


"... Paxamus says, Wine either grows sour or dead about the Solstices, and when the seven stars set, or when the Dog Star causes heat..."

"... Paxamus, Anaxagoras said, that the saltness of the sea came from the rivers, running through salt places, communicating the quality to the sea..."

Pea / Pease               

"...Which is otherwise called the Indian-hen, being mixed of a cock and a Pea (hen), though the shape of it is more like the Pea then the Cock..."

 "...Against the Colick....Civet is most excellent in this disease.  For the quantity of a Pea, applied to the navel, and a hot loaf out of the oven clapped over it, presently eases the pain..."


Peach - A well-known high-flavored juicy fruit, containing one or two seeds in a hard almond-like endocarp or stone; also, the tree which bears it (Prunus, ? Amygdalus Persica). In the wild stock the fruit is hard and inedible. Guinea, ? Sierra Leone, peach, the large edible berry of the Sarcocephalus esculentus, a rubiaceous climbing shrub of west tropical Africa. -- Palm peach, the fruit of a Venezuelan

"...What of the Peach, and Almond-peach nuts, fruits our fore-fathers knew not, yet now are they eaten, being pleasant and admirable..."

"...There is a kind of Peach called a Peach-nut, which the ancients never knew of, but has lately been produced by pains taken in Grafting, as I myself have seen..."


"...Take off two young fruitful sprigs, one form a Peach-apple Tree, and the the other from the Nut-peach Tree, but they must be well grown, and such as are ready to bud forth..."


"...There is a kind of Peach called a Peach-nut, which the ancients never knew of, but has lately been produced by pains taken in grafting, as I myself have seen..."

"...And the smaller branches thereof bearing here a Peach, and there a Peach-nut..."


Peacock - The male of any pheasant of the genus Pavo, of which at least two species are known, native of Southern Asia and the East Indies.

"...In former times, white Peacocks were such a rare sight in Colen, that every one admired them as a most strange thing. But afterward they became more common, by reason that merchants brought many of them out of Norway..."

"...For I have seen Hens sit on Geese, Ducks, and Peacock Eggs.  And Pigeons sit on Hen Eggs, and a Cuckow to sit upon any of them..."


"...Nature brought forth but one kind of Pear tree. Now so many men's names are honored by it, that one is called Decumana, another Dolabelliana, and another is named from Decumius and Dolabella..."

"...Pears may be long preserved in sodden Wine, especially the Tarentine Pears, and the Musk Pears, and the Gourd Pears.  Varro says, that the Pears called Anciana, and Sementina are to be preserved in sodden Wine..."


"...Pearl  in the eye...If the Pearl be above or beneath the cornea, make a powder of Sugar-Candy of Roses, burnt Allome, and the bone of a Cuttle Fish..."

"...As the Oyster shell does that brings forth the Pearl.  There are also shells, we call the Mothers of Pearl, that inwardly are shining, and of a silver color, like Pearls.  All which women use for their art of beautifying themselves..."


 "...And into five Pecks of Olives, you must put in four gallons and two quarts of Brine, and two pints and a half of Vinegar..."

 "...And into every Peck and a half of Olives, put a quart and somewhat more of whole Salt..."