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(note:  herbs/plants ref. w/"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. -- where possible.)

or   (Botanical.com, A Modern Herbal, Mrs. M. Grieve)


"...The stone Galaetites, in color like milk, if you cast the dust of it upon the back of a goat, she will give milk more plentifully to her young, if you give it a nurse in her drink, it increases her milk..."


Galangal - Galanga. China Root. India Root. East India Catarrh Root. Lesser Galangal. Rhizoma Galangae. Gargaut. Colic Root. Kaempferia Galanga. ---Description---The genus Alpinia was named by Plumier after Prospero Alpino, a famous Italian botanist of the early seventeenth century. The name Galangal is derived from theArabic Khalanjan, perhaps a perversion of a Chinese word meaning 'mild ginger.'

 "...Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, ...  Ginger, Cloves, Nutmegs, Zedoary, Galangal..."


Galbanum - A gum resin exuding from the stems of certain Asiatic umbelliferous plants, mostly species of Ferula. The Bubon Galbanum of South Africa furnishes an inferior kind of galbanum. It has an acrid, bitter taste, a strong, unpleasant smell, and is used for medical purposes, also in the arts, as in the manufacture of varnish.

"...Yet it does come out but in a small quantity of an excellent odor, and free from the stink of the fire, as thus they deal with Opoponax, Galbanum, Storax and others..."

"... Tarentinus teaches us this for all Fish.  Take of the strong Whale, eight Drachms, yellow Butterfly's, Annis seed, Cheese of Goat milk, of each four Drachms.  Of Opoponax, two Drachms, Hog blood, four, as much Galbanum. .."


"...If you dash the stone Galcophonos, it sounds like brass. Stage-players are wont to wear it, because it makes one have an excellent voice..."


The Greek physician Galen, AD 130-200, did notable work in the field of human anatomy despite being confined to dissecting animals such as pigs, dogs, and goats. He identified numerous muscles for the first time and showed the importance of the spinal cord, noting the resulting paralysis when the cord was cut at different levels. Galen was also the first to consider the pulse a diagnostic aid. His physiological theories include concepts of blood formation, digestion, and nerve function.

"...Galen, in his book concerning the use of parts, writes, that a bitch may conceive by a he-wolf, and so the she-wolf by a dog, and retain each others seed, and ripen it to the bringing forth of both kinds..."

 "...Epicurus would fain give a reason for it, as Galen and Lucretius report.  For, say they, the Atoms that flew out of the iron, and meet in the Loadstone in one figure, so that they easily embrace one the other..."


Galley - A vessel propelled by oars, whether having masts and sails or not; as: (a) A large vessel for war and national purposes; -- common in the Middle Ages, and down to the 17th century. (b) A name given by analogy to the Greek, Roman, and other ancient vessels propelled by oars. (c) A light, open boat used on the Thames by customhouse officers, press gangs, and also for pleasure. (d) One of the small boats carried by a man-of-war.

"...And in seafights was levelled against the enemies's Galleys, and destroyed them all almost..."

"...You shall make your Mines where the enemy Galleys or ships come to ride, you shall upon a plain place fit many beams, or pieces of timber, fastened cross-wise, and thrust through..."


Gall - The gall bladder.

"...Or infuse in Oil the black leaves of the Myrtle tree, with a double quantity of Galls bruised, and use that.  I use this.  Galls are fried in Oil, and they are ground with a little Salt-Ammoniac..."

"...If you will curb soft and loose breasts...powder white earth, the white of an Egg, sour Galls, Mastick, Frankincense, and mingle them in hot Vinegar..."


Gallon - A measure of capacity, containing four quarts; -- used, for the most part, in liquid measure, but sometimes in dry measure.

"...And into five Pecks of Olives, you must put in four Gallons and two Quarts of Brine, and two Pints and a half of Vinegar. .."

"...Shut the hole up with Linen, and to forty Sextarii pour on three Gallons of water. .."


"...A Cock , and a Pea, gender the Gallo-Pavus. Which is otherwise called the Indian-hen, being mixed of a Cock and a Pea (hen), though the shape of it is more like the Pea then the Cock..."  


Ganymede - a beautiful youth in classical mythology carried off to Olympus to be the cupbearer of the gods.

"...The best means to produce this effect, is to place in the bed-chambers of great men, the images of Cupid, Adonis, and Ganymedes, or else to set them there in carved and graven works, in some solid matter, that they may always have them in their eyes..."

Gardens of Hesperides, (The)    

Hesperides - The daughters of Hesperus, or Night (brother of Atlas), and fabled possessors of a garden producing golden apples, in Africa, at the western extremity of the known world. To slay the guarding dragon and get some of these apples was one of the labors of Hercules. The garden producing the golden apples.

"...has  Pontanus set down in his book called, The Gardens of Hesperides..."

Garden Claver  

Claver (Clover) - A plant of differend species of the genus Trifolium; as the common red clover, T. pratense, the white, T. repens, and the hare's foot, T. arvense.

"...Take three pounds of Damask roses, as much of Musk and red Roses, two of the flowers of Orange, as many of Myrtle, half a pound of Garden claver, an ounce and a half of Cloves, three Nutmegs, ten Lilies.  Put all these in an Alimbeck, in the nose of which you must fasten of Musk three parts, of Amber one, of Civet half a one, tied up together in a Clout..."


Garland - A wreath of chaplet made of branches, flowers, or feathers, and sometimes of precious stones, to be worn on the head like a crown; a coronal; a wreath.

"...There are also Herbs and flowers, that if you make Garlands of them, they will hinder Drunkenness, as Violets, Roses, and Ivy-berries. .."


"The English Physitian", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"The offensivenes of the breath of him that hath eaten Garlick will leade you by the Nose to the knowledg hereof, and (instead of a description (direct you to the place wher it groweth in Gardens, which kinds are the best and most phisical."

"...So the Herb Arisaron in Egypt, and Wakerobin, and Garlic, bear seeds like a Snake's head, and so Bugloss and Orchanet bear seeds like a Viper's head, and these are good to heal their venomous bitings..."

"...And Columella reports farther, that many do strew straw Grass, and Bay-tree boughs, and heads of Garlic, and Iron nails in the Hen's nests..."


Garner - A granary; a building or place where grain is stored for preservation.

"...Varro says, that you must lay it  (wheat) up in high Garners which have a thorough air on the eastside and on the northside..."

"...Some have their Garners under the ground, as caves, as it is in Cappadocia and Thracia, and others have their Garners in pits and ditches, as it is in the nearer part of Spain..."


"...For Gato says, if you would know whether there be water put into your Wine, make a vessel of Ivy, put your Wine you think is mixed with water, into it..."


Theodorus Gaza

Gaza Teodor (ok. 1400-1480), filozof, od 1440 profesor w Ferrarze i Rzymie. Zwolennik i goracy obronca pism Arystotelesa, przeciwnik Platona i platonizmu. Stal na czele obronców perypatetyckiej filozofii, którzy pragneli oczyscic filozofie Arystotelesa z domieszek chrzescijanskich i zwalczali interpretacje tomistyczna.

"...Theodorus Gaza translates the word 'Rhinobatos' into 'Squatino-raia' in Latin, that is a Skate-ray...."

Geber (Jabir Ibn Haiyan)       

Jabir Ibn Haiyan, known by the name of the alchemist Geber of the Middle Ages, is generally known as the Father of Chemistry. His full name was Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan. He had established himself as one of the leading scientist while he practiced medicine and alchemy in Kufa (in present day Iraq) around 776 C.E. In his early days, he was under the patronage of the Barmaki Vizier during the Abbasid Caliphate of Haroon al-Rashid. Jabir died in Kufa in 803 C.E.

"... Geber defines it thus, Distillation is the elevation of moist vapors in a proper vessel..."

 "...As I read in Geber and other writers that treat of metals..."


"...For the same quicksilver, whereby the lead was first made a subtle and pure substance, before it contracted that soil and earthiness which makes it so heavy, does still remain in the lead, as Gebrus has observed, ..."

Geese \ Goose                 

Goose - Any large web-footen bird of the subfamily Anserinæ, and belonging to Anser, Branta, Chen, and several allied genera.

"...there will certain Worms breed in it, which by little and little become like Ducks , in the head, feet, wings and feathers, and at length grow to be a big as Geese..."

"... Our wise ancestors, says Pliny, who knew the goodness of a Goose liver, taught how by Cramming to make it grow great, also taken forth, it is augmented by sweet Milk. .."


"... Gellus noct.Attic. relates, that when the Lacedemonians wrote to their generals, that their letters being intercepted by the enemies might not be read, invented this kind of writing.  yet it is referred to Archimedes to be the inventor of it..".


Gem - A precious stone of any kind, as the ruby, emerald, topaz, sapphire, beryl, spinel, etc., especially when cut and polished for ornament; a jewel.

"...There are certain leaves of metal laid under Gems, which being perspicuous, are thereby made paler or deeper, as you will..."

"...Let the plates be of Copper and Silver.  The Saphire color is made with goose feathers.  But the Emerald with Box leaves, holding them somewhat longer over the fire.  And these are the experiments which I have made concerning Gems..."


Gemini - A constellation of the zodiac, containing the two bright stars Castor and Pollux; also, the third sign of the zodiac, which the sun enters about May 20th.

"...When the sun has passed Gemini, (for this must be performed in the heat of summer only) set your form abroad in the  sun..."

Gendred / Gender   

Gender - To beget; to engender.

"... Theophrastus says, that you may procure Grapes without any stones in them, if you rob the Vine branch of the Pith that is in it, whereof the stones are wont to be Gendred..."


Generation - The act of generating or begetting; procreation, as of animals. Origination by some process, mathematical, chemical, or vital; production; formation; as, the generation of sounds, of gases, of curves, etc. That which is generated or brought forth; progeny; offspiring.

"...How to mingle the Sheep and Goats together, by Generation..." 


Genesis - . The first book of the Old Testament; -- so called by the Greek translators, from its containing the history of the creation of the world and of the human race.

"...Wherefore in Genesis, Noah sent forth a Pigeon which returned.  But the Raven returned not..."


Genitories - The organs of generation; the sexual organs; the private parts.

"...You must get a great root of Brionie, or wild Nep, and with a sharp instrument engrave in it a man or a woman, giving either of them their Genitories..."


"...How to make oil of Ben,----Which is the sweetest oil of all, used by the Genois. take an ounce of Ben, a drachm of Musk, as much Amber, half a drachm of Civit.  Put them in a glass bottle well stopt, and set it in the sun for twenty days, then you may use it..."


Gentian - Any one of a genus (Gentiana) of herbaceous plants with opposite leaves and a tubular four- or five-lobed corolla, usually blue, but sometimes white, yellow, or red.

"...Which a man may use after unclean women.  Take a Drachm of Hartwort and Gentian, two Scruples of Sanders and Lignum Aloes, half a Drachm of Powder of Coral, Spodium, and Hart horn burned..."

"...In the month of July, take three ounces of the seed, stamp it gently, and steep it in two glasses of the best white Wine, with Gentian, Tormentil, white Dittany, Zedoary, and Carline gathered in August..."


Gentile - One of a non-Jewish nation; one neither a Jew nor a Christian; a worshiper of false gods; a heathen.

"...Of the same sort was that fire, God appointed by Moses in the scriptures.  The fire shall always burn upon mine alter, which the priest shall always keep lighted, putting under wood day by day.  Wherefore, the fire was not perpetual in the temples of the gods of the Gentiles..."


Geometrician - . One skilled in geometry; a geometer; a mathematician.

"... For finding the Meridian line, as Ptolomy and other Geometricians teach how, and setting up a point on it, that the Steel Needle may turn freely upon the top of it..."