Radical Spinoza


Althusser: Spinoza as Critic of Ideology

It is difficult to overstate the controversial impact of the philosopher Louis Althusser on the western Marxist intellectuals of the 1970s. He began by rejecting the "humanist," Hegelian Marxism that had played such an important role in inspiring the revolutionary uprising of May 1968 in Paris, and, more broadly, the entire New Left of the 1960s, whether in the name of Lukacs, Marcuse, Gramsci, or Jean-Paul Sartre. Instead Althusser attempted to renew the "scientific" dimension of Marxism by purging it of an Hegelian heritage that involved, according to him, such central and ultimately idealist concepts as that of society as an "expressive totality," the proletariat as the subject of history, revolution as the transcendence of alienation, and the historical process as development toward a telos, a consummating end or goal. Proposing instead a rigorous form of "anti-humanism" centered on concepts of society as a articulated totality of complex and heterogenous elements, or "instances," "structural causality" in which the economy is determinate "in the last instance", and history as a process without a subject or goal, Althusser was widely seen as the representative of an ascendent structuralist tendency in European thought that included such thinkers as the linguist Ferdinand de Sasussure, the anthropologist Claude Levi Strauss, and the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. However Althusser himself always rejected the "structuralist" label, and instead identified Spinoza as the primary inspiration for his philosophical revolution in the Essays on Self-Criticism excerpted in the first entry below ("Althusser's Spinoza"). In that rather brief treatment, he claims to have discovered in Spinoza a radically "materialist" approach to philosophical theory, one that rejects the primacy of consciousness and subjectivity as well as teleological causality as a genuine category of knowledge. But above all, Althusser sees in Spinoza's crtique of "inadequate ideas" a forerunner of Marx's critique of ideology as an ensemble of imaginary representations through which people adopt a false and distorted relationship to their real conditions of life. Though Althusser's use of Spinoza lacked scholarly sophistication, it nevertheless initiated the turn to Spinoza that inspired the far more sophisticated and extensive interpretations of a younger generation of radical intellectuals, including Gilles Deleuze, Antonio Negri, Pierre Machery, Alexandre Matheron, and Etienne Balibar, coauthor of Reading Capital, probably Althusser's most important book.


Althusser's Spinoza

Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses

Althusserian Lexicon

Althusser On Aleatory Materialism

Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays

Necessity and Contingency: The Return of Althusser

Grant: Rethinking Althusser

The Althusser Effect


Gilles Deleuze: Spinoza and the "Plane of Immanence"

Deleuze: Spinoza 24-01-1978

Deleuze: Spinoza 09-12-1980

Deleuze: Spinoza 25-11-1980

Deleuze: Spinoza 03-01-1981

Deleuze: Spinoza 17-02-1981

Deleuze: Spinoza 24-03-1981

Spinoza 1

Spinoza 2

Spinoza 3

Spinoza 4

Spinoza 5

Spinoza 6 

Spinoza 7

Spinoza 8

Spinoza 9

Spinoza 10

Spinoza 11

Spinoza 12

Spinoza 13

The Spinoza-intoxicated man

The Fold

What Is Philosophy?

Postscript on the Societies of Control

Gilles Deleuze: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Power and Desire in the Political Ontology of Spinoza and Deleuze-Guatari

Plane of Immanence

Plane of immanence - Wikipedia

Mille Plateaux and the State-Form

Plane Of Immanence, Philosophy

Immanence and Deterritorialization: The Philosophy of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari

control AND becoming

Anti Oedipus Part 3 Chart

Deleuze Guattari's Anti-Oedipus A Brief Outline

Anti-Oedipus overall model

The Vertigo of Philosophy

Becoming Multitude


Matheron: Spinoza and Collectivity

A propos de Spinoza



Macherey: Spinoza as an Alternative to Hegel


Multitude, guerre et democratie age del'Empire Presentation par Macherey


Balibar: Spinoza and Radical Politics

Radical Philosophy Interview - September-October 1999

Reading Capital - 68glosdex




Politics After Spinoza


Antonio Negri's Subversive Spinoza

The Savage Anomaly: The Power of Spinoza's Metaphysics and Politics

Spinoza's Anti-Modernity


ars et multitudo

an ungrammatical multitude

Publi Sphere, labour, multitude. Strategies of resistance in Empire

Preface Anomalie sauvage de Negri  Spinoza present

Preface a l'Anomalie sauvage

Preface a L'Anomalie sauvage

Preface a L'Anomalie sauvage 2

Retour a Spinoza et le retour du communisme




Negri 1000 plateaus

Negri on Sovereignty

Negri on Multitude and Metropolis

Ethics as Post-Political Politics



Ontological Definition of the Multitude

Postface to the Complete Text

Postfordist Lexicon - Multitude


Radical machines


A Rift in Empire:The Multitudes in the Face of War

Empire hits back

General intellect

Spinoza au-dela de Marx

Holland:Spinoza and Marx

A Study of Spinoza and the Young Marx

Materialism and the Early Modern State

Grammar of the Multitude


Value and affect - Negri

Logic and theory of inquiry




L'evenement Spinoza

Les Lumie res radicales: La philosophie, Spinoza et la naissance de la modernite (1650-1750)

Muineure Spinoza

Temps politique dans l'oeuvre de Spinoza

Necessite et liberte chez Spinoza quelques alternatives

L'esprit Oldenburg

Hail the Multitudes

Multitudes 2004

Multitudes 2005

Automne 2004

Automne 2006

Multitudes sur Wikipedia

Marxism and the Multitude

The pink rebellion of Copenhagen

Intellectuels francais une nouvelle generation

Labour History as the History of Multitudes

Multitudes Hiver-Printemps 2007

Multitude 2004

Step Right Up and Join the Multitude


Working Through the Night