The End of Europe's Middle Ages


General | Economy | Feudal Institutions | New Monarchies | Holy Roman Empire |
Italy's City-States | Eastern Europe | Ottoman Turks | The Church |
Language and Literature | Intellectual Life | Visual Arts | Music


Aston, Margaret. The Fifteenth Century: The Prospect of Europe. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1968.

Bean, J.M.W. From Lord to Patron. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1989.

Burns, Edward McNall; Lerner, Robert; Meacham, Standish. Western Civilizations. Tenth Edition. London: W.W. Norton & Co.

Burns, J.H. Lordship, Kingship and Empire: The Idea of Monarchy 1400-1525. London: Clarendon Press Oxford, Inc., 1984.

Cantor, Norman F. The Civilization of the Middle Ages. New York, N.Y.: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993.

Graus, Frantisek. 'Slavs and Germans' in Eastern and Western Europe in the Middles Ages. Ed. Geoffrey Barraclough. London: Thames and Hudson, 1970, p. 15-43.

Hollister, C. Warren. Medieval Europe: A Short History. Seventh edition. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

Holmes, George, ed.. The Oxford History of Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Europe in the Middle Ages. Eds. Hoyt, Robert S., Chodorow, Stanley. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,

Jensen, De Lamar. Renaissance Europe: Age of Recovery and Reconciliation. Second edition. Toronto: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992.

Palmer, J.J.N. England, France and Christendom 1377-99. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972.

Previte-Orton, C.W. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: The University Press, 1960.

Spielvogel, Jackson J.. Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715. Second edition. St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1994.

Storey, R.L. Chronology of the Medieval World. London: Barrie & Jenkings, 1973.

Strayer, Joseph R. On the Medieval Origins of the Modern State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.

Tierney, Brian. The Middle Ages Volume I: Sources of Medieval History. Fourth edition. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1983.


Feudal Institutions

Cheyette, Fredric L., ed .. Lordship and Community in Medieval Europe: Selected Readings. Toronto: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1968.

Ganshof, F.L.. Feudalism. Philip Grierson, trans..Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996. Reprint in association with the Medieval Academy of America.

Reynolds, Susan. Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

New Monarchies

Bisson, T.N. The Medieval Crown of Aragon. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.

Brown, Elizabeth A.R. Politics and Institutions in Capetian France. Hampshire, England: Variorum, 1991.

Elliott, J.H. Imperial Spain 1469-1716. New York, N.Y.: The New American Library, 1963.

----- "Monarch and Empire" in Spain: A Companion to Spanish Studies. Ed. P.E. Russell. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1973, pp. 107-144.

Fawtier, Robert. The Capetian Kings of France. London: Macmillian & Co Ltd, 1960.

Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. Ferdinand and Isabela. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975.

Spain in the Fifteenth Century 1369-1516. Ed Roger Highfield. London: Macmillan, 1972.

Hillgarth, J.N. The Spanish Kingdoms 1250-1516, Volume I. Oxford: Claredon Press, , 1976.

Hillgarth, J.N. The Spanish Kingdoms 1250-1516, Volume II. Oxford. Claredon, Press, 1978.

Hitchcock, Richard. "Muslim Spain" in Spain: A Companion to Spanish Studies. Ed. P.E. Russell. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1973, pp. 41-64.

Hunt, Percival. Fifteenth Century England. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Kamen, Henry. A Concise History of Spain. London: Thames and Hudson, 1973.

----- Golden Age Spain. London: Macmillan Education Ltd., 1988.

Kendall, Paul Murray. Louis XI. New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., 1971.

Lewis, P.S. Later Medieval France. Toronto: Macmillan, 1968.

----- Essays in Later Medieval French History. London: The Hambledon Press, 1985.

Livermore, Harold. A History of Spain. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1958.

Lomax, Derek W. The Reconquest of Spain. London: Longman, 1978.

Lunenfeld, Marvin. Keepers of the City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Ed. Kenneth O Morgan. Oxford: Oxford University press, 1984.

Shennan, J.H. Government and Society in France 1461-1661. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1969.

Tate, R.B. "The Medieval Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula" in Spain: A Companion to Spanish Studies. Ed. P.E. Russell. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1973, pp. 65-106.

Vale, M.G.A. Charles VII. London: Eyre Methuen, 1974.

Van Caenegem, R.C. The Birth of the English Common Law. London: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Holy Roman Empire

Detwiler, Donald S.. Germany: A Short History. Carbondale, USA: Southern Illionois University Press, 1976.

Fisher, Herbert. The Medieval Empire, Volume II. London: MacMillan and Co., 1898.

Fulbrook, Mary. A Concise History of Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Gillingham, J.B. The Kingdom of Germany in the High Middle Ages. London: The Historical Association, 1971.

Herzstein, Robert E. The Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages: Universal State of German Catastrophe?. Boston: DC Heath and Company, 1966.

Kitchen, Martin. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Leuschner, Joachim. Germany in the Late Middle Ages. Amsterdam: Morth-Holland Publishing Co. 1980.

Stubbs, William. Germany in the Later Middle Ages, 1200-1500. Arthur Hassall, ed.. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908.

Italy's City-States

Guicciardini, Francesco. The History of Italy. Sidney Alexander, trans.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Eastern Europe

Babinger, Franz. Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Trans. Ralph Manheim. Ed. William C. Hickman. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978.

Bratkowa, Jaslaw Z. and Borivoj Prusmk. Jubilejnm Album Grunwald. Poznan-Praha, 1910.

The Cambridge History of Poland. Eds W.F. Reddaway; J.H. Penson; O, Halecki; R. Dyboski. Cambridge: The University Press, 1950.

Fugedi, Erik. Kings, Bishops, Nobles and Burghers in Medieval Hungary. London: Variorum Reprints, 1986.

Held, Joseph. Hunyadi: Legend and Reality. New York: East European Monographs, Boulder #CLXXVIII, 1985.

Köpeczi, Bila et al, ed.. History of Transylvania. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1989.

Molnár, Éva, ed. Hungary: Essential Facts, Figures & Pictures. Trans. Pál Herskovits. Budapest: Kossuth Printing House Co., 1995.

Reddaway, W. F. et al, ed.. The Cambridge History of Poland: From the Origins to Sobieski (To 1696). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950.

Szajnocha, Karol. Jadwiga I Jagiello: 1374-1413. Warszawa: Panstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1969.

Torok, Bela. Hungary and Europe. Sydney: Hungaria Publishing Company, 1979.

Vardy, Steven Bela. History of the Hungarian Nation. Astor Pk, Florida: Danubian Press, Inc., 1969.

Ottoman Turks

Itzkowitz, Norman. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition. Chicago: The Uiversity of Chicago Press, 1972.

Kinross, Lord. The Ottoman Centuries. London: Jonathan Cape, 1977.

Pitcher, Donald Edgar. An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1972.

Shaw, Stanford. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

The Church

Language and Literature

Burrow, J.A. and Thorlac Turville-Petre. A Book of Middle English. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1992.

Clay, Beatrice. "King Arthur and the Round Table". In The Junior Classics, Volume Four: Hero Tales. Mabel Williams and Marcia Dalphin, eds.. P.F. Collier & Son Corporation, 1949.

Einhard. "The Life of Charlemagne". In The Two Lives of Charlemagne. Lewis Thorpe, trans.. Toronto: Penguin Books, 1969.

Intellectual Life

Chodorow, Stanley, Macgregor Knox, Conrad Schirokauer, Joseph R. Strayer and Hans W. Gatzke. The Mainstream of Civilization: To 1500. Fifth edition. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1989.

Lindberg, David C.. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Visual Arts

Bazin, Germain. A Concise History of Art. Third edition. London: Thames and Hudson, 1964.

Focillion, Henri. The Art of the West in the Middle Ages. Jean Bony, ed.. Second edition. New York: Phaidon, 1969.

Harvey, John. The Gothic World 1100-1600: A Survey of Architecture and Art. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd., 1950.

Janson, H.W.. History of Art. Third edition. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1986.

Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art From the Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1967.

Os, Henk van. The Art of Devotion in the Late Middle Ages in Europe 1300 - 1500. Michael Hoyle, trans.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Shaver-Crandell, Anne. The Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Sitwell, Sacheverell. Gothic Europe. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969.

Strickland, Carol and John Boswell. The Annotated Mona Lisa: A Crash Course in Art History From Prehistoric to Post-Modern. Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1992.

Zarnecki, George. Art of the Medieval World: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, The Sacred Arts. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1975.

Erland-Brandenburg, Alain. Cathedrals and Castles: Building in the Middle Ages. Rosemary Stonehewer, trans.. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1995.


Grout, Donald; Palisca, Claude, V. A History of Western Music. London: W.W. Norton and Company, 1988.

Kerman, Joseph. A History of Art and Music. New York: Abrams, Inc., 1968.

Laraesse Encyclopedia of Music. Ed. Geoffrey Hindley. Toronto: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., 1971.

Stevenson, Robert. "Spanish Music" in Spain: A Companion to Spanish Studies. Ed. P.E. Russell. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1973, pp. 543-567.

Strunk, Oliver. Essay on Music in the Western World. New York: W.W. Norton and Company Inc., 1974.

Yudkin, Jermy. Music in Medieval Europe. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1989.

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The End of Europe's Middle Ages / Applied History Research Group / University of Calgary
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