Fractions  Cancellations 
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Fractions in mathematics can be written in several ways. The horizontal bar or line (—) is commonly used in elementary mathematics and is represented by dots 34 (/). The diagonal line or slash (/) is represented by dots 456, 34 (_/). Examples in this lesson will utilize the horizontal line only. The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Scientific Notation, 1972 Revision should be consulted for information on the use of the diagonal line.
A simple fraction is defined as one whose numerator and denominator contains no fractions. The simplefraction indicators (opening: dots 1456, ? and closing: dots 3456, #) are used to enclose a simple fraction in which the print fraction line is horizontal.
?2/3#  ?2+1/3+4#  ?2+1/3#  ?a+b/c# 
A mixed number is an expression which begins with a numeral and is followed by a simple fraction whose numerator and denominator are both numerals. If the expression contains any letters, it is not considered a mixed number in Nemeth. The mixed fraction indicator (opening: dots 456, 1456, _? and closing: dots 456, 3456, _#) is used to enclose the fractional part of the mixed number.
#2_?2/3_#  #8_?3/4_#  #1_?1/2_# 
A complex fraction is one whose numerator or denominator or both, contains a simple fraction. The horizontal line for complex fractions is made with dots 6, 34 (,/). The complex fraction indicators opening: dots 6, 1456 (,?) and closing: dots 6, 3456 (,#) are used to enclose the complex fraction.
,??4/5#,/10,#  ,?8,/?6/7#,# 
When introducing fractions, it may be preferable to use spatial arrangements. This will help the child to develop the concept of the numeral on the “top” or “bottom” of the fraction and will be useful as the principles of invert and multiply are taught. Once the child is familiar with fractions, the linear arrangement should be used as it is much less complex and can be read quickly by the braille reader.
In a spatial arrangement of fractions, the horizontal line is represented as dots 25 in series (33). This line should be the same length as the longest expression above or below it. The appropriate fraction indicators are used with the fraction line and the Numeric Indicator is used with the numerator and denominator since each is preceded by a space.
Simple Fraction 
Complex Fraction 
#2 ?33# #3 
#1 ?33# #2 ,?3333,# #5 
Fractions are written in linear format for addition and subtraction problems. The total problem is arranged spatially and aligned vertically. Transcribing rules dictate that the numerator should be right justified in the numerator column and the denominator should be left justified in the denominator column. This means that a space may need to be left after the opening fraction indicator or before the closing fraction indicator in order to align the numerals by place value. In the classroom, these transcribing rules may not be strictly adhered to as it may be more efficient for the student to braille the fractions in a spatial arrangement without concern for precise vertical alignment.
This example illustrates vertical alignment of the numerators. A space left after the opening fraction indicator provides for alignment of the numerators to facilitate their addition.  
?3/8# +?4/8# 33333333 ?7/8# 
? 2/16# +?11/16# 3333333333 ?13/16# 
The fractions are aligned vertically and the sign of operation is placed immediately to the left of the opening fraction indicator on the line just above the separation line. The separation line extends one cell on either side of the problem.
In arrangements containing mixed numbers, the whole numbers are aligned vertically with the tens, ones, etc. falling in the appropriate column. The sign of operation is placed one cell to the left of the widest number.
11_?8/12_#  3_?3/12_# 3333333333333 8_?5/12_# 
The procedures described above apply to fractions with common denominators. The lowest common denominator must be found before the fractions can be added or subtracted.
1_?3/4_# .k 1_?3/4_# + ?1/2 # .k ?2/4 # 33333333333333333333333 1_?5/4_# .k #2_?1/4_# 

text description: mixed number one and threefourths plus simple fraction onehalf equals mixed number one and threefourths plus twofourths equals sum of one and fivefourths reduced to two and onefourth 
In the above problem, the lowest common denominator is found for the fraction. The fractions are added and the answer is reduced to lowest terms. Although the Numeric Indicator is not used in the spatial arrangement, it is required before the final fraction after the equals sign.
On pages 4853 in Strategies for Developing Mathematics Skills in Students Who Use Braille, additional methods for adding and subtracting fractions are discussed. These methods are similar to the methods studied earlier for spatial arrangements of the four basic operations. Lines are skipped in place of using the separation line and the final answer is brailled on a separate line using the format “ans. = ###”. These methods and the methods discussed for multiplication and division of fractions should be studied carefully and considered as options when teaching the youngster to perform calculations on the brailler.
It is important to note that these methods differ greatly from the strict transcribing rules described in the code book. These alterations in format allow the student to perform calculations on the brailler more easily and quickly. Transcription of classroom materials for student use should adhere to rules outlined in the code book.
Braille the following. Check your work against the answer key.