Spatial Arrangements for Multiplication | Spatial Arrangements for Division |

Download the embossable version of all examples on this page: companion brf file for embossing

There are a number of division signs in print. This lesson focuses only on the right curved division symbol. More information about the other forms of the division sign can be found in the Nemeth Code Book. (*The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Scientific Notation, 1972 Revision*).

**Key Vocabulary**:

**dividend**: the number or quantity being divided**divisor**: the number by which the dividend is divided in a division problem.**quotient**: the number that results when numbers are divided**remainder**: the number that is left over in a division problem if the dividend was not evenly divisible by the divisor

333 o |
3 3333 4o12 |

The right curved division sign in print is represented with dots 1-3-5 (O) in braille. The separation line (dots 2-5 in series, 333) must be placed on the line above the division symbol. The separation line must begin in the column containing the division symbol and extend one cell to the right of the entire arrangement. The NI is not used.

Additional separation lines within the division problem (throughout the partial product and differences) must begin in the column containing the division symbol and extend one cell beyond the width of the entire arrangement. All separation lines within the problem must be the same length.

Several methods exist for writing long division problems in print and several exist for Nemeth as well. The Nemeth Code book provides examples of each. The teacher should determine which method will be best to use with the student.

For purposes of this lesson, we will use the term "traditional method" to describe the method that looks similar to print format. Separation lines are used within the partial product and Nemeth Code rules are followed. Students should be familiarized with this method because it will be found in textbook examples and other formally transcribed materials. This method is illustrated on page 9 of the Craig book and below.

54 33333 5o270 25 33333 20 20 33333 |

The division problem is worked as it is in print. The traditional sequence of dividing is followed by placing the quotient above the separation line. The paper is moved in and out of the braille writer as the problem is worked. When this format is used, the partial product will disappear into the brailler when the student moves the paper to braille the quotient. This method may feel tedious to some.

The alternate method described in Strategies for Developing Mathematics Skills in Students Who Use Braille on pages 46-48 does not make use of the separation lines. The right-curved division symbol is used. With this method, the quotient is placed to the right of the problem as it is worked. This method does not follow code, but it ensures that the numerals in the problem are visible to the student at all times.

5o270 25 #5 20 20 4 ans4 .k #54 |

This example can be viewed on graph paper through the link: figure 3 on graph paper

The steps are as follows:

- Braille the divisor, curved division symbol and dividend on the first line.
- Advance the paper one line. Press the spacer key to move the embosser head to the right of the problem.
- Divide the divisor into the dividend and braille the Numeric Indicator with the one digit (partial) quotient.
- Backspace to position the embosser head under the dividend.
- Multiply (the divisor by the partial quotient) and braille the partial product.
- Advance the paper two lines. This will leave a blank line in place of the separation line.
- Subtract the partial product from the dividend and braille the difference, aligning the numerals in the appropriate columns.
- Advance the paper one line. Move the embosser head to the right and align it under partial quotient.
- Repeat the division process and braille the single digit partial quotient. The numeric indicator is not used and the numeral is brailled directly below the first partial quotient.
- Repeat from step 4 until the division process is complete.
- Advance the paper two lines and braille the complete quotient. Collect the digits in the answer column by starting at the top. The Numeric Indicator serves as a marker for the starting point. Braille the digits in sequence as they appear from top to bottom. Do not add them. Use the format
*ans. = ###*to write the final quotient. If a remainder exists, braille the letter*r*, followed by the numerals which comprise the remainder.

Additional alternate methods exist for writing out long division problems. A method similar to the one outlined above, called the *T-method* uses separation lines as well as vertical bars to separate the problem from the answers. An example of this method can be seen on page 12 in the Craig book.

The formats discussed thus far apply to division of whole numbers. When the divisor or dividend are numerals containing decimals, the position of the decimal point must be considered in the arrangement. When a decimal point or comma occurs in the dividend of a division arrangement, a blank column of cells should be left in the corresponding location throughout the arrangement, except in the separation lines.

5,080.09 33333333333 18o91,441.62 90 33333333333 1 44 1 44 33333333333 1 62 1 62 33333333333 |

The spatial arrangement for long division appears as it would in formally transcribed material (table 5). The dividend contains both a comma and a decimal point and these also appear in the quotient. The comma and decimal point are not repeated in the partial product and difference and a blank cell is left instead.

5.18 3333333 18o93.24 90 3333333 3.2 1.8 3333333 1.44 1.44 3333333 |

When students are being introduced to the concept of division of decimals, it may be preferable to have the student place the decimal point in the partial product as the problem is worked (table 6). Although this would not be done with formal transcription of mathematical materials, it is permissible in the classroom to help the student learn to compute these problems. There will be variation depending on how the teacher requires the student to perform the computation. Additional explanation is found in the Craig book.

Carets are used to indicate repositioning of the decimal point to facilitate computation. The caret is represented by dots 4-5-6, 1-2-6 ( _<). When the caret is used, one blank cell is left under the original decimal point and two blank cells are left under the caret in the partial product.

6 .5 33333333 .4_<o2.6_<0 2 4 33333333 2 0 2 0 33333333 |

The caret in long division is used to reposition the decimal in both the divisor and the dividend (table 6). Use of the caret in actual computation may not be required by the teacher. Like other Nemeth indicators, it is essential that the blind child be given the opportunity to learn the meaning and use of this indicator since it might appear in his or her mathematics textbook and other formally transcribed mathematical materials. Not teaching these symbols may leave the child at a disadvantage when the symbols appear in formal assessment materials.

Remainders

When a dividend can no longer be divided and a numeral smaller than the dividend is left, the resulting numeral is known as the remainder. In long division problems with remainders, the remainder is written on the line with the quotient, and preceded by the letter* r. * In Nemeth, the remainder is written by brailling the letter r followed by the Multipurpose Indicator (dot 5, " ). The remainder follows the Multipurpose Indicator. The Multipurpose Indicator will be studied in more depth in a later lesson. One blank cell is left after the quotient and before the letter *r*. The separation line must extend one cell to the right of the width of the entire problem. A quotient with a remainder can extend the width of the spatial arrangement by several cells. The letter *r* can appear as upper or lower case and this must be represented in braille.

Traditional Method | Alternate Method | |

71 r"2 333333333 4o286 28 333333333 6 4 333333333 2 |
4o286 28 #7 6 4 1 2 r2 ans4 .k #71r2 |

Problem Identifiers

Problem identifiers frequently appear on worksheets and within textbook exercises. The problem identifier can be in the form of sequential numbers or letters or both.

When a problem identifier is used with a spatial arrangement for long division, the numeral or alphabetic identifier must be positioned on the same braille line as the divisor, regardless of its position in print. One column of blank cells should be left between the last symbol appearing in the identifier and the left-most symbol in the overall arrangement of the braille problem. The last symbol of the identifier is often a Literary period and the Punctuation Indicator must be used before the Literary period.

9 33333 #12_4 22o198 198 33333 0 |

Practice 03.b

Try these long division problems. Use both the traditional and alternate methods for each. Check your work against the answer key.