This is the second fresco in the series of 3 Botticelli
painted for Pope Sixtus IV for the Sistine Chapel.
The fresco reproduces three episodes of rebellion by the
Hebrews against God's appointed leaders, Moses and Aaron,
and the divine punishment of those responsible.
On the right-hand side, the revolt of the Jews against
Moses is related. Moses is the old man in green and yellow.
The story goes that the Jews after being led out of Egypt
wanted a new leader who would take them back, and they
threatened to stone Moses. Joshua placed himself
protectively between them and their would-be victim, as
depicted in Botticelli's painting.
The center of the fresco shows Aaron in the background,
swinging his incense, a depiction of the rebellion of Korah
against Aaron's authority as high priest. Their punishment
was to be swallowed up by the earth, which is breaking open
under them on the left hand side of the fresco. The two
innocent sons of Korah float on a cloud and avoid the
Aaron is depicted in the fresco wearing the triple-ringed
tiara of the Pope and thus characterized as the papal
predecessor. It was a warning to those questioning the
ultimate authority of the Pope over the Church. The papal
claims to leadership were God-given, their origin lay in
Christ giving Peter the keys to the kingdom of heaven and
thereby granting him privacy over the young Church. Perugino
painted this crucial element of the doctrine of papal
supremacy immediately opposite Botticelli's fresco. - Web