Spinoza's World


Meeting in the 17th Century of the States General of the United Provinces (Later called Holland or the Netherlands)

Building Where the States General Met

Spinoza's Friend, Johan De Witt, Chief Pensionary (i.e. President) of the States General, and His Brother Cornelius (in the Background)


Political Murder of the De Witt Brothers by a Reactionary Mob


The De Witt Brothers Immortalized


Images of the Hague, Where Spinoza Moved After the De Witt Brothers Were Murdered


Spinoza's House in the Hague



Books by Spinoza (Only the First Two Were Published During Spinoza's Life-Time, the Second One - The Tractatus - Anonymously)


Rene Descartes, Founder of Modern Philosophy and a Great Influence on Spinoza


Letter from Spinoza to the German Philosopher, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz


Euclid's Elements of Geometry, Model for the Rational Method of Spinoza's Ethics


Working Through the Night


Spinoza's Tombstone