Magic in the Bible


Table of Contents



General and Comparative Studies


Frazer, Sir James G., Folklore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion, Legend and Law [3 vols] (Macmillan: London, 1918)


Gaster, Theodor H., Myth, Legend, and Custom in the Old Testament: A Comparative Study with Chapters from Sir James G. Frazer’s Folklore in the Old Testament (Gloucester, MS: Peter Smith, 1981) [2 vols.]


Ginzberg, Louis, Legends of the Jews  (Philadelphia: JPS, 1909-38) 7 Vols.


Smith, W. Robertson, The Religion of the Semites (NY: Schocken Books, 1972)






Braman, Robert Michael, The Problem of Magic in Ancient Israel (Ph.D. Dissertation, Drew University, 1989)


Brichto, J.C., The Problem of "Curse" in the Hebrew Bible (JBL Monograph Series 13; Philadelphia Society of Biblical Literature, 1963)


Cryer, Fredrick H., Divination in Ancient Israel and its Near Eastern Environment (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1994)


Davies, T. Witton, Magic, Divination, and Demonology Among the Hebrews and Their Neighbors (Dissertation, University of Leipzig; Liepzig and London: 1898)   [reprint: Kessinger Publishing Company; Ktav, 1969]


Driver, G.R., Witchcraft in the Old Testament (Edmonds, WA: Sure Fire Press, 1994)


Fishbane, Michael, Studies in Biblical Magic, Origins, Uses, and Transformations of Terminology and Literary Form (Ph.D. Thesis, Brandeis University, 1971)


Grabbe, Lestor L., Priests, Diviners, Sages: A Socio-Historical Study of Religious Specialists in Ancient Israel (Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 1995)


Guillaume, Alfred, Prophecy and Divination among the Hebrews and other Semites (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1938)


Hamilton, Mark Wade, Divination in Ancient Israel (M.A. Thesis, Abilene Christian University, 1992)


Jeffers, A., Magic and Divination in Ancient Palestine and Syria (Leiden—NY Cologne: Brill, 1996)


Jirku, A., Die Damonen und ihre abwehr im Alten Testament (Leibzig: A Deichert, 1912)


Jirku, A., Mantik in Altisrael (Rostok: Rats- and Universitatsbuch druckerei von Adlers Erben, G.m.b.h., 1913)


Joines, K.R. Serpent Symbolism in the OT (Haddenfield: Haddonfield House, 1974)


Kuemmerlin-Mclean, J.K., Divination and Magic in the Religion of Ancient Israel: A Study in Perspectives and Methodology (Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University,        1986)


Lanaan, T., Daemonenglaube im Lande der Bibel (1929)


Lewis, T.J., Cults of the Dead in Ancient Israel and Ugarit (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989)



Luff, Karl T., A Biblical Perspective on the Magic and Divination Found in Some of the World’s Religious Systems (Dissertation, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1994)


Mclean, Charles Victor, Babylonian Astrology and its Relation to the Old Testament (Toronto: The United Church Publishing House, 1929)

Noegel, Scott B., Magic and the Bible (Peabody, MA.: Hendrickson Publishers), [forthcoming]


Olson, Eric J., Divination in Ancient Israel (Master’s Thesis, Harvard University, 1969)


Park, Jongsoo, Priestly Divination in Ancient Israel (Ph.D. Dissertation, Drew University, 1993)


Perry, Charles E., The Theory and Practice of Lot-casting in Ancient Near Eastern Countries and Israel (M.Div. Thesis, Grace Theological Seminary, 1975)


Schmidt, Brian B., Israel's Beneficent Dead: Ancestor Cult and Necromancy in Ancient Israelite Religion and Tradition (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1996)


Troppor, Josef, Nekromantic: Totenbefragung im Alten Orient und im Alten Testament (Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen--Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1989)


Van der Toorn, Karl, et al. (eds.), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Leiden—NY—Cologne: Brill, 1995)


Volz, D., Das Demonische im Jahwe (Tubingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1924)


Von Stuckrad, K., Frommigkeit und Wissenschaft: Astrologie in Tanach, Qumran, und fruhrabbinischer Literature (Europaische Hochschulschriften, series 23 Theologie, vol. 572; Frankfurt: Lang, 1996)


Vondergeest, Craig, Prophecy and Divination in the Deuteronomistic History (Ph.D. Dissertation, Union Theological Seminary and Presbyterian School of Christian Education, 2000)



Articles in Periodicals and Chapters in Books


Albrecht, Mark & Brooks, Alexander, "Separating Wheat and Chaff: Biblical Discernment and Parapsychology," Journal of Religion and Psychical Research 3 (1980), 172-209


Albright, W.F., “An Aramean Magical Text in Hebrew from the Seventh Century BC,”  BASOR 76 (1939), 6-11


Aouad, Lucian, “La divination dans la Bible,” Revue de Clerge Africain 25 (1970), 185           205


Arzi, P., “Witchcraft,” Encyclopedia Mikrait (Jerusalem: 1963), vol. 4, pp. 348-365


Aune, D.E., “Magic,” in G. Bromiley (ed.), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1979), vol. 3, pp. 213-219


Bakon, Shimon, “Witchcraft in the Bible,” Dor le Dor 15:4 (1987), 234-243


Bar-Ilan, Meir, “Witches in the Bible and the Talmud,” in Herbert W. Basser & Simcha Fishbane (eds.) Approaches to Ancient Judaism, [New Series, Vol V.] (Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1993), pp. 7-32


Baucq, A., “Oracle et Divination,” DBS 6 (1960), 779-782


Benko, Stephen, "Magic," in Paul J. Achtermeier (ed.), Harper's Bible Dictionary (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985), pp. 594-596


Blank, Sheldon H., "The Curse, Blasphemy, the Spell, and the Oath," HUCA 23 (1950 1951),  73-95


Bloch-Smith, Elizabeth, “The Cult of the Dead in Judah: Interpreting the Material Remains,” JBL 111 (1992), 213-224


Bretherton, Donald, "Psychical Research and the Biblical Prohibitions," in J. Pearce Higgins (ed.), Life, Death, and Psychical Research (London: Rider, 1973), pp. 101-124


Bryce, G.E., “Omen Wisdom in Ancient Israel,” JBL 94 (1975), 19-37


Burden, J., “Magic and Divination on the OT and their Relevance for the Church in Africa,” Missionalia (1973), 103-111


Burns, J.B., "Necromancy and the Spirits of the Dead in the Old Testament," Transactions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society 26 (1928), 1-15


Caquot, Andres, "La Divinations l'ancien Isreal," in A. Caquot and M. Leibovici (eds.),  La Divination (Paris: Presses Univeritaires de France, 1968), pp. 83-113


Cryer, Frederick H., “Der Prophet und der magier: Bemerkungen anhard einer uberholton diskussion,” in R. Liwak et al. (eds.), Prophetie und Geschichtliche Wirklichkeit (1991), pp. 79-88


Dhorme, E., “Pretres, devins, et mages dan l’ancienne religion des Hebrews,” RHR 108 (1933), 115-143


Eissfeldt, O., "Wahrsagung im Alten Testament," in D. F. Wendel, (ed.), La Divination en Mésopotamie Ancienne et Dans Les Régions Voisines (XIVe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale; Saint-Germain, Paris: Presses Universitaires de            France, 1966), pp. 141-145.


Fabian, Dapila N., “The Socio-Religious Role of Witchcraft in the Old Testament Culture: an African Insight,” Old Testament Essays 11:2 (1998), 215-239


Finkel, A., “The Pesher of Dreams and Scriptures,” RQ  4 (1963/64), 357-370


Fohrer, G., “Prophetie und Magie,” ZAW 78:1 (1966), 25-47


Ford, J. Massyngbearde, "Jewel of Discernment: a Study of Stone Sybmolism [Isa. 8:14 16; 28:16]," BZ 11:1 (1967), 109-116


Fox, W., “Old Testament Parallels to Tabellae Defixione,” AJSL (1913-1914), 111-124


Friedman, M.A., “Tamar, a Symbol of Life: The ‘Killer Wife’ Superstition in the Bible and Jewish Tradition,” JSR 15 (1990), 23-61


Gervitz, S., “West-Semitic Curses and the Problems of the Origin of Hebrew Law,” VT 11 (1961), 137-158


Goitein, S.D., “Women as Creators of Biblical Genres,” Prooftexts 81 (1988), 1-33


Grabbe, Lester, L., “Prophets, Priests, Diviners, and Sages in Ancient Israel,” in Heather A. McKay and David J.A. Clines (eds.) Of Prophets’ Visions and the Wisdom of Sages: Essays in Honor of R. Norman Whybray (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993), pp. 43-62


Grintz, Jehoshua, "Do Not Eat of the Blood: Reconsiderations in Settings and Dating of  the Priestly Code (Lev. 19:26; I Sam. 14:31-35, Ez. 33:25)," Annual of the       Swedish Theological Institute 8 (1972), 78-105


Grottanelli, Christiano, "Per un mitico giacobbe domestico, pastore, e mago," in P. Xella (ed.), Studi di Storia della Religioni, pp. 127-146


Grottanelli, Christiano, "Specialisti del soprannaturale e potere nella Bibbia ebraica; appunti e spunti," in F.M Fales e C. Grottanelli (eds.), Soprannaturale e potere nel mondo antico e nelle societa tradizionali (Milano: Franco Angeli, 1985), pp.        119-140


Grunwald, M. & Kohler, K., “Bibliomancy,” Jewish Encyclopedia (NY: Funk & Wagnells, 1901-1905), Vol. 3, pp. 202-205


Grunwald, M., “Bibliomantie und Gesundbeten,” MGJVK 8 (1902), 81-99


Guinan, Ann, "Divination," in William W. Hallo, (ed.), The Context of Scripture. Vol. I. Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997), pp.421-426.


Harvey, Graham, “The Suffering of Witches and Children, Uses of Witchcraft Passages in the Bible,” in Jon Davies, Graham Harvey, and Wilfred G.E. Watson (eds.)   WorldRemembered Texts: Essays in Honour of John F.A. Sawyer (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995), pp. 113-134


Hayes, J.H., “The Usage of Oracles against Foreign Nations in Ancient Israel,” JBL 87 (1968), 81-92


Hayward, Robert, "Pseudo-Philo and the Priestly Oracle," JSS 46 (1995), pp. 43-54


Hillers, Delbert R., "The Effective Simile in Biblical Literature," JAOS 103:1 (1983), 181-185


Huffman, Herbert, “Priestly Divination in Israel,” in Carol L. Meyers & M. O’Connor (eds.), TheWord of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel     Freedman in Celebration of his Sixtieth Birthday (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983), pp. 355-359


Hunstman, Eric D., "And They Cast Lots: Divination, Democracy and Josephus," Brigham Young University Series 36:3 (1996-1997), 365-377


Hutton, Rodney R., “Magic or Street-Theater?  The Power of the Prophetic Word,” ZAW 107:2 (1995), 247-260


Iwry, Samuel, “New Evidence on Belomancy in Ancient Palestine and Phoenicia,” JAOS 81 (1961), 27-34


Jirku, Anton, "Zur Magischen Bedentung des Kleidung in Israel," ZAW 37 (1917/1918), 109-125


Jirku, Anton, “Die Mimation in den nordsemitischen Sprachen und einige Bezeichungen  der altisraelitischen Mantik,” Biblica 34 (1953), 78-80


Jirku, Anton, “Ein Fall von Inkubation im Alten Testament (Ex 38:8),” ZAW 33 (1913), 151-153


Kapelrud, A.S., "Shamanistic Features in the Old Testament," in Carl Martin Edsman (ed.), Studies in Shamanism (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1967), pp. 90-96


Kavale, F.K., “A Biblical Study of Witchcraft: With Application for Second and Third   Generation Christians in Kenya,” African Journal of Evangelical Theology 12 (1994), 114-133


Kuemmerlin-McClean, J.K., "Magic (OT)," Anchor Bible Dictionary (NY: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 4, pp. 486-471


Landsberger, B. & Todmor, H., “Fragments of Clay Liver Models from Hazor,” IEJ 14 (1964), 201-217


Lindblom, Johs, “Lot-Casting in the Old Testament,” VT 12 (1962), 164-78


Lods, A., Le role des magiques dans la mentalite israelite," in Old Testament Essays: Papers Read Before the Society for Old Testament Study (London: Charles Griffin and Co., 1927), pp. 55-76


Lods, Adolphe, "Magie hébraïque et magie cananéenne," Revue d'Histoire et de Philosophie Religieuses 7 (1927), 12-25.


Long, B.O., “The Effect of Divination upon Israelite Literature,” JBL 92 (1973), 489-497


Loretz, Oswald, "Nekromantie und Totenevokation in Mesopotamien, Ugarit und Israel," in Bernd Janowski, Klaus Koch, and Gernot Wilhelm, (eds.),            Religionsgeschichtliche Beziehungen zwischen Kleinasien, Nordsyrien, und dem Alten Testament: Internationales Symposion Hamburg 17.-21. März 1990 (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, 129; Gottingen: Universitätsverlag Frieburg Schweiz, Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1993), pp. 285-318.


Lust, J., "On Wizards and Prophets," in D. Lys [et al.] (eds.), Studies on Prophecy (VTSup Series 26; Leiden: Brill 1974), pp. 133-142


Mantovani, Piera Arata, "La magia nei testi preesilici dell' Antico Testamento," Henoch 3 (1981), 1-21


Mendelsohn, I., "Divination," G.A. Buttrick (ed.) Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (NY: Abingdon Press, 1962), vol. K-Q, pp. 223-225.


Muthengi, Julius, "The Art of Divination," Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 12:2 (1994), 90-104


Neufeld, Ernest, “Residual Magic in the Bible,” Dor le Dor 17:4 (1989), 255-259


Nigosion, Solomon A., "Anti-Divinatory Statements in Biblical Codes," Theological Review 18 (1997), 21-34


Patai, Raphael, “Control of the Rain in Ancient Palestine,” HUCA 14 (1939), 254-258


Porter, J.R., "Ancient Israel," in M. Loewe & Carmen Balcker (ed.), Divination and Oracles (Boulder: Shanbhala, 1981), pp. 191-214


Rabinowitz, Jacob, "The Witch of Endor, Pirkei Ovoth, or Bottled Spiritst," in The Rotting Goddess (Brooklyn, NY.: Autonomedia, 1998), pp. 123-135


Ricks, Stephen, “The Magician as Outsider: The Evidence of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,” in Marvin Meyer and Paul Mirecki (eds.) Ancient Magic            and Ritual Power (Leiden: EJ Brill, 1995), pp. 131-143


Ricks, Stephen, “The Magician as Outsider: The Evidence of the Hebrew Bible,” in P.V.M. Flesher (ed.), New Perspectives in Ancient Judaism vol. 5 (Lanham: University Press of America, 1990), pp. 125-134


Rist, M., “The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: A Liturgical and Magical Formula,”  JBL 57 (1938), 289-303


Rogernson, John W., "The World-view of the Old Testament," in J. Rogerson (ed.), Beginning Old Testament Study (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1998), pp. 55-73


Rooy, J.A. van, “Witches and Wizards in the Light of Scripture,” Missionalia 1 (1973), 136-138


Segal, J.B., "Popular Religion in Ancient Israel," JJS 27:1 (1976), 1-22


Shmidtke. F., Traume, Orakel, und Totengeister als Kunder der Zukunft in Israel und Babylonia,” BZ ns 11 (1967), 240-246


Tarragon, Jean Michel de, “Witchcraft, Magic, and Divination in Canaan and Ancient Israel,” in Jack M. Sasson (ed.) Civilizations of the Ancient Near East III (NY: Charles Scriber’s Sons, 1995), pp. 2071-2081


Thistleton, Anthony C., “The Supposed Power of Words in the Biblical Writings,” JTS 25 (1974), 283-299


Torczyner, H., “A Hebrew Incantation Against Night Demons from Biblical Times,” JNES 6 (1947), pp. 18-29


Vattioni, F., “La necromanzia nell’AT,” Augustinianum 3 (1963), 461-481


Ward, E.F. de, "Superstition and Judgement: Archaic Methods of Finding a Verdict," ZAW 89:1 (1977), 1-19


Wondstra, Marten H., "Prophecy, Magic, and the Written Word," Catholic Theological Journal 2 (1967), 53-56


Xella, P., “Il ‘culto del morti’ nell’Antico Testamento,” Religioni e civilita: Festschrift A. Brelich (Barl, 1982), pp. 645-666


Yamauchi, Edwin, "Magic in the Biblical World," Tyndale Bulletin 35 (1983), 169-200


Zuck, R.B., “The Practices of Witchcraft in the Scriptures,” Bibliotheca Sacra 128 (1971), 352-360






Moore, M.S., The Balaam Traditions: Their Character and Development (Atlanta:  Scholars Press, 1990)


Articles in Periodicals and Chapters in Books


Albright, W.F., “The Oracles of Balaam,” JBL 68 (1944), 207-233


Armerding, Carl, "The Breastplate of Judgement," Bibliotheca Sacra 118 (1961), 54-58


Baskin, Judith R., "Origen on Balaam: the Dilemma of the Unworthy Prophet [Num. 22:24, 31; Jud 1:11; 2 Pet 2:15-16; Rev 2:4] Viviliae Christianae 37:1 (1983), 22-35


Cunen, F., "Les Pratiques Divinatoires attribuees a Joseph d’egypte," Revue des Sciences Religieuses 33 (1959), 396-404


Currid, John D., “The Egyptian Setting of the ‘Serpent’ Confrontation in Exodus 7:8-13,” Biblische Zeitschrift 39:2 (1995), 203-224


Daiches, S., “Balaam-A Babylonian baru,” in Hilprecht Anniversary Volume (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs; Chicago: Open Court, 1909) pp. 60-70


Dijkstra, Meindert, “Is Balaam Among the Prophets,” JBL 114 (1995), 43-64


Gager, John G., “Moses the Magician: Hero of an Ancient Counter-Culture?” Helios 21 (1994), 134-161


Geller, Markham J., "The Surpu Incantations and Lev 5:1-5," JSS 25 (1980), 181-192


Hurrowitz, Victor Avigdor, “The Expression ‘uqsamim beyadam’ (Nu. 22:7) in Light of Divinatory Practices from Mari,” Hebrew Studies 33 (1992), 5-15


McCarthy, D.J., "Moses' Dealings with Pharaoh," CBQ 27 (1965), 336-347


Milgrom, J., “Kishuf, Monotheism, and the Error of Moses,” Bet Mikra 36 (1991), 19-46 [Heb]


Milgrom, Jacob, "Magic, Monotheism, and the Sin of Moses [Num. 20:1-3 (Meribah):  Ex. 17:5-7 (Massah)] in H. Huffmon & F. Spina (eds.), The Quest for the            Kingdom of God (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983), pp. 251-265


Morgenstern, J., “Trial by Ordeal Among the Semites,” HUC Jubilee Volume (1925),  113-144


Muller, Hans-Peter, "Erkenntnis und Verfehlun Prototypen und Antitypen zu Gen 2-3 in der Altorientalischen Literatur," in T. Rendtorff (ed.), Glaube und Toleranz            (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus G. Mohn, 1982), pp. 191-210


Noegel, Scott B., “Moses and Magic: Notes on the Book of Exodus,” JANES 24 (1997), 45-59


Press, R., “Das Ordeal im Alten Israel,” ZAW 51 (1937), 121-140, 227-255


Reindl, Joseph, "Der finger gottes und die macht der gotter: ein problem des agyptischen diaspora Judentums und sein literarischer Niedershlag," in W. Ernst (ed.), Dienst Ver Vermittlung: Feitschrift sum 25-Jahr, pp. 49-60


Van Seters, John, “A Contest of Magicians?  The Plague Stories in P,” in David P. Wright, David Noel Freedman, and Avi Hurvirtz (eds.) Pomegranates and Golden Bells: Studies in Biblical, Jewish, and Near Eastern Ritual, Law, and Literature in Honor of Jacob Milgrom (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995), pp. 339-349


Wagenaar, Jan A., “‘A woman who Practices Sorcery, Shall not Sustain her Soul': A Note on the Text and Interpretation of Exodus 22,17," Zeitschrift fur Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte 6 (2000) 186-189







Matheny, M.P., The Relationship of Ancient Near Eastern Sympathetic Magic to the Symbolic Acts of the Hebrew Prophets (Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1965)


Noegel, Scott B., and Brannon M.Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements, 43; Prévessin, France: Scarecrow Press, 2002)


Articles in Periodicals and Chapters in Books


Ades, J., "Samuel, Whear 'Ast Tha Been Sin' I Saw Thee," in V. Tollers and J. Maier (eds.), Mappings of the Biblical Terrain: The Bible as a Text (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1990), pp. 260-267


Abrahams, Israel, “The Witch of Endor,” The Expositor 2 (1882), 111-120


Bakon, Shimon, “Saul and the Witch of Endor,” Dor le Dor 5 (1976a), 16-23


Barrick, W. Boyd, “Elisha and the Magic Bow: A Note on 2 Kings 13:15-17,” VT 35:3 (1985), 355-363


Becking, Bob, “’Touch for Health…’: Magic in II Reg 4:31-37 with a Remark on the History of Yahwism,” ZAW 108:1 (1996), 34-56


Beuken, W.A.H., "I Sam 28: the Prophet as 'Hammar' of Witches," JSOT 6 (1978), 3-11


Bic, Milos, "Der Prophet Amos-Ein Haepatoskopos," VT 1 (1951), 293-296.


Bledstei, Adrien Janis, "Was Habbirya a Healing Ritual Performed by a Woman in King David's House," Biblical Research 37 (1992), 15-31


Brownlee, W.H., “Exorcising the Souls from Ezekial 13:17-23,” JBL 69 (1950), 367-373


Cogan, Mordechai, “The Road to Endor,” in David P. Wright, David Noel Freedman, and Avi Hurvirtz (eds.) Pomegranates and Golden Bells: Studies in Biblical, Jewish, and Near Eastern Ritual, Law, and Literature in Honor of Jacob Milgrom (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995), pp. 319-326


Durand, Jean M., "In Vino Veritas: ARM 104; drinking wine as divination technique at  Mari; parallels with Isaiah 28:7, Micah 2:11," RA 76:1 (1982), 43-50


Gorg, Manfred, "'Damonen' statt in 'Eulen' in Jes 13:21," Biblische Notizen 62 (1992), 16-17


Greenberg, Moshe, "Nebuchadnezzar and the Parting of Ways: Ezekial 21: 26-27," in M. Cogan and I. Ephal (eds.), Ah, Assyria: Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1991), pp. 267-271


Key, Andrew, "The Magical Background of Isaiah 6:9-13," JBL 86 (1967), 198-204


Lieber, E., "'He Looked in the Liver' (Ez. 21:26) The Medical Origins of Liver   Divination," Korot 9 (1988), 235-245


Margalith, Othniel, “Dor and En-Dor [reply to J.P. Brown 91:339 1981]” ZAW 97:1 (1985), 109-111


McCown, C.C., “The Christian Tradition as to the Magical Wisdom of Solomon,” JPOS 2 (1922), 1-24


Mertonem, A., “The Prophet Amos—A Hepatoscoper,” VT 2 (1952), 170-171


Munk, Area, “Magic og leller ideologic som Ledebrad til Forstaelsen af Jeremias 27-28?” Dansk Teologisk Tidsskrift 56:2 (1993), 96-109


Nehemia, Tsori, "New Light on Endor," PEQ 84 (1952), 114-117


Niehr, Herbert, “Ein underkannter Text zur Nekromantie in Israel: Bemerkungen zum     religionsgeschtlichen Hintergrund von 2 Sam 12, 16a,” UF 23 (1991), 301-306


Noort, Edward, "Eine Weitere Kurzbemerkung zu I Samuel 14:41," VT 21 (1971), 112-116


Reis, Pamela Tamralin, “Eating the Blood: Saul and the Witch of Endor,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 73 (1997), 3-23


Schmidt, Brian B., “The ‘Witch’ of En-Dor, 1 Samuel 28, and Ancient Near Eastern Necromancy,” in Marvin Meyer and Paul Mirecki (eds.) Ancient Magic and Ritual Power (Leiden: EJ Brill, 1995), pp. 111-129


Seggs, H.F.W., "External Souls in the Old Testament (Ez. 13:17-21)," JSS 19 (1974), 112


Simon, Uriel, “A Balanced Story: the Stern Prophet and the Kind Witch,” Prooftexts 8 (1988), 159-171


Smelik, K.A.D., “The Witch of Endor: I Samuel 28 in Rabbinic and Christian Exegesis  Till 800 A.D.,” Vigiliae Christianae 33 (1977), 160-179


Sosevsky, Moshe, “On Defense of Sha’ul: The King and the Baalath Ov,” Jewish Thought 1:1 (1990), 101-116


Thomasson, Jacques de, "Acte-Signes on Actes Magques? Ez 2-5 et Surpa," Biblische Notizen 64 (1992), 18-25


Torijano, Pablo A., " La 'Hygromanteia de Salomon'," 'Ilu 4 (1999), 327-346


Trencseny-Waldapfel, I., “Die Hexe von Endor und die griechisch-romische Welt,” Acta Or 12 (1961), 201-222


Vandertoorn, K., "Echoes of Judean Necromancy in Isaiah 28:7-22," ZAW 100 (1988), 199-217


Vattioni, F., “La Necromanzia nell’Antico Testamento—I Sam 28:3-25,” Aug 3 (1963), 461-481


Wedland, Ernst R., “Elijah and Elisha: Sorcerers or Witch Doctors?” Bible Translator 43 (1992), 213-223






Birkeland, Harris, The Evil-doers in the Book of Psalms (Oslo: I kommiajon hos. J. Dybwead, Norske Videnakaps-akademie, 1955)


Nikol'skii, Nikolai M., Spuren Magischer Formeln in den Psalmen (Giessen: A. Topelmann, 1927)


Parsons, I.R.M., Evil Speaking in the Psalms of Lament (Ph.D. Dissertation, Drew University, 1969)


Porter, P.A., Metaphors and Monsters: A Literary-Critical Study of Daniel 7 and 8 (Uppsala: Coniectanen Biblica. OT Series 20, 1983)


Articles in Periodicals and Chapters in Books


Anderson, Wayne, “Os Vulvae in Proverbs and the Malleus Maleficarum,” History of European Ideas 14:5 (1992), 715-722


Bar-Ilan, Meir, “Text Criticism Erotica and Magic in the Song of Songs,” Shnaton—an Annual for Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies 9 (1987), 31-53 [Heb.]


Davies, E.W., “The Meaning of Qesem in Psalms 16:10,” Bib 61 (1980), 554-556


Davis, Eli, “The Psalms in Hebrew Medical Amulets,” VT 42 (1992), 173-178


De Fraine, J., “Le ‘Demon du midi’ (Ps. 91),” Biblica 40 (1959), 372-383


Fodor, Alexander, "The Use of Psalms in Jewish and Christian Arabic Magic," in E. Apor (ed.), Jubilee Volume of the Oriental Collection (Budapest: MTAK, 1978), pp. 67-71


Fontaine, Carole R., " 'Many devices' (Qoheleth 7.23-8.1); Qoheleth, Misogyny and the 'Malleus Maleficarum'," in Athalya Brenner and Carol Fontaine (eds.), Wisdom and Psalms: A Feminist Companion to the Bible (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1988), pp. 137-168


Gammie, John G., "The Angeology and Demonology in the Septuagint of the Book of Job," HUCA 56 (1985), 1-19


Greloit, Pierre, "Lecriture sur le mur (Daniel 5) in A. Caquot [et al.] (eds.), Melanges Bibliques et Orientaux en l'honneur de M. Mathias Delcor (Kevalaer: Butzon & Bercker, 1985), pp. 199-207


Kayser, C., “Gerbrauch von Psalmen zur Zauberei,” ZDMG 42 (1888), 456-462


Millard, Alan R., "Daniel and Belshazzar in History," BAR 11:3 (1985), 73-78


Miller, Patrik D. Jr, "Apotropaic Imagery in Proverbs 6:20-22," JNES 29 (1970), 129-130


Muller, Hand Peter, “Magisch-Mantische Wisheit und die Gestalt Daniels,” UF 1 (1969), 79-94


Noonan, Brian B, "Wisdom Literature Among the Witchmongers," in Athalya Brenner and Carol Fontaine (eds.), Wisdom and Psalms: A Feminist Companion to the Bible (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1988), pp. 169-174 


Oesterley, W.O.E., "The Demonology of the OT Illustrated by Ps. 91," The Expositer 16 18 (1907), 132-151


Simonson, D., “Ein Nachtrag zu der Abhandlung uder ‘Gberauch von Psalmen zur Zauberei’,” ZDMG 42 (1888), 693-694


Smith, Mark S., “The Invocation of Decreased Ancestors in Psalms 49:12c,” JBL 112  (1993), 105-107



Technical Terms


Articles in Periodicals and Chapters in Books


Ackroyd, Peter R., “The Teraphim,” ET 62 (1951), 378-380


Bazak, J., “Hover-Haver,” Sinai 32 (1937-1938), pp. 167-171


Clines, D.J.A., “Ob,” Dictionary of Classical Hebrew I (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993)


Dan, Joseph, “Teraphim: From Popular Belief to a Folktale,” in J. Heinemann & S Wereses (eds.), Studies in Hebrew Narrative Art (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1978), pp.       99-106


Dietrich, M., Loretz, O., & Sanmartin, J., “Ugaritisch ilib und hebraisch ‘(w)b ‘Totengeist’,” UF 6 (1974), 450-451


Dommerahaussen, W., “Goral,” in G. Johannes Botterweck & Helmer Ringgren (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament [trans. John T., Willis] (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1975), pp. 450-456


Ebach, Jurgen and Rutersworden, Udo, "Unterweltsbeschworung im Alten Testament: Untersuchunger zur Begriffs - und Religionsgechichte des 'ob (teil 2)," Ugarit Forschungen 12 (1990), pp. 205-220


Ellinger, K., “Ephod und Choschen,” VT8 (1958), 19-35


Finkelstein, J.J., “Hebrew hbr and Semitic hbr,” JBL 75 (1956), 328-331


Gipson, Norman, "A Glossary of Difficult Old Testament Words (ariel, cherubim, seed, urim and thummim, bamah, nethanim, seraphim)" in Wendel Winkler (ed.), Difficult Texts of the Old Testament (Hurst, TX: Winkler Publications, 1982), pp.7-16


Haran, Menachem, “The Ephod According to Biblical Sources,” Tarbiz 24 (1954-55), 380-391


Hoffner, H.A., "Second Millenium Antecedents to the Hebrew `ob," JBL 86 (1967), 385-401


Hoffner, H.A., “‘obh,” in G. Johannes Botterweck & Helmer Ringgren (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament [trans. John T., Willis] (Grand            Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1975), pp. 130-134


Hoffner, H.A., “Hittite Tarpis and Hebrew Teraphim,” JNES 27 (1968), 61-68


Hoffner, H.A., “Linguistic Origins of Teraphim,” BS 124 (1967), 230-238


Labuschagne, C.J., “Teraphim: A New Proposal for its Etymology,” VT 16 (1966), 115-117


Lambdin, T.O.,"Egyptian Loan Words in the Old Testament," JAOS 73 (1975), 145-155


Levenson, Jon D., "A Technical Meaning for n`m in the Hebrew Bible," VT 35 (1985),  61-67


Lewis, T.J., “Teraphim,” in K. van der Toorn, et al. (ed.), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Leiden—NY—Cologne: Brill, 1995), pp. 1588-1601


Loretz, O., “Die Teraphim als Ahnen-Gotter-Figurinen im lichte det Texte aus Nuzi, Emar, und Ugarit,” UF 24 (1992), 133-178


MacLaurin, E.C.B., “Joseph and Asaph,” VT 25 (1975), 27-45


Poiselli, G.C., “Ilib, gb, ‘b tra Ugaritico, Fenicio, ed Ebraica,” RSO 56 (1982), 21-26


Queagebur, J., "On the Egyptian Equivalent of Biblical Hartumim," in S.I. Groll (ed.), Pharaonic Egypt: the Bible and Christianity (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1983), pp. 162-172


Rouillard, H., & Tropper, J., “TRPYM, rituels de guerison et culte des ancetres d’apres 1 Samuel XIX 11-17 et les textes paralles d’Assur et de Nuzi,” VT 37 (1987), 340-361


Rouillard, H., & Tropper, J., “Vom kanaanaischen Ahnenkult zur Zauberel Eine Auslegungsgeschichte zu den hebraischen Begriffen ‘wb und yd`ny,” UF 19 (1987), 235-254


Schmidt, H., "’wb," Vom Alten Testement.  Festchrift K. Marti (BZAW 41; Gieben, 1925)


Sherlock, Charles, "The Meaning of hrm in the Old Testament," Colloquium 14 (1982), 13-24


Smith, W. Robertson, “On the Forms of Divination and Magic Enumerated in Deut. 18:10-11,” Journal of Philology 13 (1885), pp. 273-288 and 14 (1885), pp. 113 128


Sperling, S. David, “HBR and Friends,” in M. Cohen et al. (eds.) The Tablet and the Scroll pp. 225-229


Van der Toorn, K., “The Nature of the Biblical Teraphim in the Light of Cuneiform Evidence,” CBQ 52 (1990), 203-222


VanHoonacker, A., "Divination by 'ob Amongst the Ancient Hebrews," ET 9 (1897 1898), 157-160



Urim and Thummim




Van Dam, Cornelis, The Urim and Thummim: A Means of Revelation in Ancient Israel (Winona Lake, IN: Eisen braums, 1997)


Van Dam, Cornelis, The Urim and Thummim (Kampen: Uitgeverij van der Berg, 1986)


Articles in Periodicals and Chapters in Books


Baumgarten, Joseph, "The Duodecimal Courts of Qumran, Revelation, and the  Sanhedrin," JBL 95 (1976), 59-78


Dosker, H.E., "Urim and Thummim," Presbyterian and Reformed Review 3 (1892), 718ff.


Fletcher-Louis , C. H. T, All the Glory of Adam: Liturgical Anthropology in the Dead Sea Scrolls (STDJ 42; Leiden: Brill, 2001)


Hayward, Robert, “Pseudo-Philo and the Priestly Oracle,” JJS 46 (1995), 43-54


Houtman, Cornelius, "The Urim and Thummim: A New Suggestion," VT 40 (1990), 229 232


Hurowitz, Victor and Hurowitz, Wayne, “Urim and Thummim in Light of a Psephomancy Ritual from Assur (LKA 137),” JANES 21 (1992), 95-115


Hurowitz, Victor Avigdor, “True Light on Urim and Thummim,” JQR 88:3-4 (1998), 263-274


Johnson, Bo, "Urim und Thummin ald Alphabet," Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute 9 (1974), 23-29


Kennedy, A.R.S., "Urim and Thummim, Ephod, Teraphim," Assyriologische und Archaeologische Studien (Hilprecht Anniversary Volume; Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1909), pp. 225ff.


Kitz, Anne Marie, "The Plural Form of Urim and Thummim," JBL 116 (1997), 401-410


Lipinski, E., “Urim and Thummim,” VT 20 (1970), 495-496


Maier, J., “Urim und Tummim,” Kairos 11 (1969), 22-38


Maier, Johan, "Urim und Thummim: Recht und Bund in der Spannung zwischen  konigstum und Priestertum in Alten Israel," Kairos 11:1 (1969), 27-38


Mangan, Edward A., "The Urim and Thummim," CBQ 1 (1939), 133-138


Muss-Arnolt, W., "The Urim and Thummim: a Suggestion as to their Original Nature and Significance," American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 16 (1899          1900), 193-224


Nickel, Roland, “Urim und Thummim: Theologische Anmerkungen,” in H. Heinz (ed.), Kult und Geselleschaft im Alten Israel (Friedensau: Theologische Hoschschule, 1995), pp. 29-36


Roberston, Edward, "'Urim and Thummim: What Were They?" VT 14 (1964), 67-74


Westermann, C., “Die Begriffe fur Fragen und Suchen im Alten Testament,” Kerygm und Dogma 6 (1960), 10-13


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