The End of Europe's Middle Ages
Between 1120 and 1128, the Teutonic Order of Holy Mary in Jerusalem was founded by German crusaders and developed into a military-religious order dominated by the noble classes. From 1221 to 1225, the Knights defended Hungarian Transylvania against the Mongols and they led a crusade against the pagan Prussians in 1228. As a reward, the Polish Prince Conrad of Mazovia granted them land in Prussia, which the Knights expanded through the conquest of other territories, both pagan and Christian. Eventually, the presence of a strong military state on their borders threatened both Poland and Lithuania and Polish-Lithuanian forces defeated the Teutonic army at the Battle of Tannenberg in 1410. The Order was secularised in 1525.
The End of Europe's Middle Ages / Applied History Research Group / University of Calgary
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