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Calendar of Witchcraft Trials 1300-1500

These are the English trials, listed chronologically from 1300-1500, as recorded in my research notes. In the interest of getting these on the web because of the pleas in my guestbook, I did this quickly, so please realize the following:

1. This is NOT the paper I wrote, just a chronological list of the body of trials I worked from.

2. They are for the most part UNEDITED
, so there are typos, and poor grammar etc. I promise I'll get around to editing them soon.

3. As stated above, these are unedited, and sometimes things are in Latin or Middle English. Again, oops, sorry, I'll get to it, and email me if you need a translation or a source.

1300-1330 |1330-1370 |1370-1400 |1400-1430 |1430-1470 |1470-1500
John Tannere(alias John Canne) who claimed to be son of Edward I, was drawn and hanged as a traitor in the 8th year of Edward II. It is recorded that he made a public confession that he had: "served the devell" for more than 3 years, and that the fiend had promised him the crown.

1324 Kilkenny Ireland. Dame Alice Kyteler.
In 1324, in Kilkenny Ireland, Lady Alice Kyteler, William Utlagh (or Outlaw) her son, and ten of their alleged accomplices were tried for witchcraft and enchantments in the spiritual court of Ossory. There may have been some basis for the original accusation, but the charges which were brought against her were certainly drawn from the growing mythology of demonism. The accusation seems to have been purely a matter of party vilification. Nevertheless, the witchcraft beliefs brought out in the trial are interesting both because they show an early occurrence of those that would dominate the trials of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, including the perversion of the holy wafer, anointing a stick for flying, and Roger Artisson (or Robin Son of Art), a shapeshifting emissary of the Devil who also served as the accused witch's lover, and they are also directly related to charges in French trials of the same time. Lady Alice was of bourgeois origin but was connected by her four marriages to a great number of political figures. The accusation of witchcraft brought against her immediately implicated guilt by association to her family connections. Bishop Ledrede found whole party guilty when the case was originally tried, but then the trial was moved to the Irish Parliament, which represented only the English party and which was rife with personal feuds. Through the machinations of Lady Alice's powerful relatives, the case was removed again to English Chancery, which held no jurisdiction over sorcery cases. Consequently, the charges were dropped, but through the persistent efforts of Bishop Leered, the case was finally heard at the King's Bench in 1325.
Apparently, Lady Alice was four times married, and was charged with killing some of her husbands by sorcery and so bewitching others so that they gave up all their property to Lady Alice and her son by first marriage, William. Her current husband, John Le Poer was afflicted by a wasting disease which had been allegedly brought on by her sorcery. She was accused of having a familiar demon named Filius Artis, or Robin, or Robert; which appeared alternately as a cat, a shaggy dog, or black man. Robin was an incubus and served as her lover. William Ledrede, Bishop of Ossory prosecuted at the trial. Ledrede was a Franciscan friar from London, who spoke both English and French, and was somewhat resented as a foreigner by the local gentry.
Lady Alice Kyteler was rich, a descendant of an Anglo-Norman family settled in Kilkenny for some generations. Her father, Robert le Kyteler made a substantial income through trade with Flanders in the later thirteenth century, and Alice added to the family fortunes by her first marriage to William Utlagh (Outlaw), a rich banker and moneylender of Kilkenny. From that union was born her only son, William. She and William attracted much hatred from the local gentry, apparently because they acted as moneylenders, and extant documents prove the local nobles owed them substantial sums. The reputation of mother and son is preserved in the Annals of Ireland, where she is described as raking filth to her sons door saying, "unto the house of William my sonne; hie all the wealth of Kilkennie town."
The fiercest hatred directed at Lady Alice came from the children of her later husbands by their previous marriages. The disinherited heirs complained of her sorceries, claiming that she had killed some of their fathers, and made others give up their wealth to her and William, to the perpetual impoverishment of the stepchildren. Her husband at the time of the trial, Sir John le Poer, was reduced, they maintained, by her powders and sorceries to suffer a wasting sickness. This gentleman, was prevailed upon by his maid to open Alice's things and discovered "horrible things" (presumably items for sorcery and witchcraft) which he transmitted to the local bishop at Ossory.
Among the accusations against Lady Alice were the charges that she allegedly used such ingredients as the brain and clouts of unbaptized infant, and the nails of corpses boiled in the skull of a beheaded robber to make powder and unguents for malefic magic. The same skull acted as cauldron in which she made infernal candles of human fat, like the Biblical Witch of Endor. Also, three demons in the shape of black dwarves were said to attend on her. It was also alleged that she had offered cocks at the crossroads to a demon, tearing them limb from limb, and used the entrails in the preparation of magical powders and potions. The formal inquiry by Richard de Ledrede included among the witnesses the dispossessed heirs of the four husbands. The charges were multiple homicide, maleficarum, and that Lady Alice and her son William were sorcerers and the heads of a heretical group. This group was supposed to have consisted of ten Anglo-Norman nobles and one cleric, all involved in malefica and demon worship. It was alleged that they concocted powders, pills and ointments from herbs, intestines, horrible worms, nails from corpses, swaddling from unbaptized infants, and also that they made candles from human fat. Furthermore, they were employed in maleficarum against Christians; they caused sickness, death, love, or hatred as it pleased them among the good Christians of Kilkenny. It was also alleged that they fulfilled excommunication against individuals, and cursed them from head to toe, while the women were reported to have anathematized their own husbands. According to the witnesses, the main purpose of this group's workings was to deny Christ and the Church. They carried out these offenses by seeking counsel of demons by sorcery. They performed animal sacrifices to demons, Lady Alice herself was reported to have sacrificed cocks to her private demon just as Pope Boniface was believed to have done. This private demon, Robin Artisson, or "Son of Art", helped Lady Alice acquire all her wealth. The charges are listed twice, the second set having been obtained through the torture of Petronilla of Meath, who was questioned under the supervision of Bishop Ledrede. She was then made to publicly affirm the charges against herself and Lady Alice. All of the charges seem to have been intended to show that Lady Alice had no right to her wealth, that it was taken from its rightful owners by demonic means, and was therefore tainted at its source. Furthermore, all of the crimes were committed with a demon which was her lover, making Lady Alice completely abominable.
Bishop Ledrede demanded that accused parties be imprisoned, but the Lord Chancellor was Alice's brother-in-law, Roger Outlaw, and he declined to act. Lady Alice fled from Kilkenny with the help of her relatives. Then the seneschal of Kilkenny intervened in the case. This was Sir Arnold le Poer, another relative of Alice's, who first told the bishop to stop his proceedings against her, and when Ledrede refused, had him imprisoned for a short time. Ledrede proceeded to excommunicate Lady Alice, wherefore she indicted him for defamation.
Finally, the case was argued before the king's council. All involved were found guilty on July 2 1325. Of the thirteen persons convicted, some were whipped through streets of Kilkenny, while the others, included Petronilla of Meath, were burned alive. William Utlagh went to prison, but was later pardoned for a huge sum. Lady Alice was sentenced to the stake, but managed to escape by fleeing to England. According to a chronicle by Friar John Clyn, she was later apprehended and put to death for heresy. It seems obvious that the case was about the political and financial warring of the two sides of a political family. While maleficarum was common accusation throughout the middle ages by nobles in dispute, what is interesting in Lady Alice Kyteler's case is the presence of demonology. The demonology doctrine seems to have come directly from Bishop Ledrede; Robin son of Art is not in the original charges of Lady Alice's stepchildren, it only appears in Petronilla's forced confession through torture at the hands of Ledrede. The bishop's previous career shows his preoccupation with demons and heresy. Ledrede was Franciscan from England, but had been consecrated at Avignon 1317, a time when the Templar affair was still remembered. He was obsessed with heresy and rooting out heretics throughout his whole career, both before and after the trial at Kilkenny there is plenty of evidence of his preoccupation with heretics. At Avignon some 25 years after the Kyteler affair he asserted to Pope Benedict XII that Ireland was full of demon-worshipping heretics, whom he alone had opposed. Bishop Ledrede linked maleficarum with heresy, and in his report of the charges against Lady Alice and the others he refers to them as "heretics". His is the first known accusation whereby a woman received her supernatural power through intercourse with a demon. A similar charge had been leveled before at men, whereby their supernatural power was the result of their mother's intercourse with incubi, like Merlin from Authurian legend, whose mother was human and father was a demon. Here, the image of witch that is so prevalent in the trials of Europe appears, where witchcraft and heresy are entertwined.
Alice's trial is also full of cross references to ritual magic. Alice controls her demon, she does not worship him. The legacy of ritual magic is contained within the wording of the trial. The "Art" that "Robin" is "Son" to is magic art. In ritual magic texts of the time, such as the Key of Solomon, the ritual magician is often called the Master of Art, while the animal sacrificed for the parchment is called the Victim of Art. Robin was a common name in the lore of the middle ages for a woodsprite, which Petronilla might well have given when prompted for a demon's name during torture. It is not inconceivable that Ledrede linked it to the term from ritual magic.
1325, Coventry

Robert le Mareschal and 27 clients charged before secular court with sorcery, attempt on life of king and other authorities.
english translation of Parliamentry Writs: Robert Marshall of Leceister confessed before Simon Crozier deputy magistrate of the king that when he was living in the house of Master John of Nottingham, who practicied magic and dwelt at Coventry, a group of men came to them and begged them to keep secret their converstation. Made a compact, then confessed that they could no longer live under the Prior of Coventry and begged Master John to undertake to kill the king "by his nigromancy and his art "agreed for the price of 20 pounds sterling and the lodging of any religious house in England, as well as 15 pounds sterling to Robert to aid and abet them. Robert made 7 figures of wax: King Edward, the Earl of Wincester, Monsieur Hugh (prior of coventry), the Cellarer: Nicholas Crump, the prior's seneschal, and a courtier, Richard de Sowe. Richard's image was used as a test figure to see what would happen to others. Put a lead pin in figure's head and Richard's "memory was distraught", left in for some time, Richard weakens, then pin is removed from head and put in heart, whereupon Richard died. Everyone involved was fully cognizent of proceedings to date.Nobles accused all denied fiercely, all aquitted. Evidence given before the Coroner November 30, 1324 by Robert Marshall, in investigation of Richard le Sowe's death. Robert is appelor in both coroner's court and king's bench to which the case was called up by a writ of certiorari dated Nov 6, 18 Ed(1324) Tried June 1325 by which time John of Nottingham had already died in prison. Coventry burghers are aquitted, Robert is held in custody and what became of him is unknown. 1330:
Condemnation of Edmund, Earl of Kent on political grounds; had obtained important information from a demon throught the mediation of a friar.
Edmund is brother of Edward II(murdered). Condemned in Wincester Parliament of 1330. Kent had heard that Edward was still alive and his consequent action in Edward's interest was the pretext for his conviction and execution on March 19. Whole affair engineered by Roger Mortimer (lover of Queen Isabella), young Edward III not yet in charge. On March 24 Mortimer sent a letter to the pope explaining and justifying the crime; declared that Edmund had got the info from a demon conjured by a friar. When Mortimer was condemmned the following November, the parliament surely had the matter of the demon in mind, saying that he managed to convey the report that Edward was still living to Kent, whereupon the earl investigated the matter "by all the good means he knew of"

1331, Southwark
Jury found that a goldsmith had unsuccessfully attempted to kill 2 people via image magic. Since no one had died it was decieded that the King's Bench had no jurisdiction in the matter, clearly implying that if actual murder had taken place it could have been tried in the normal way by the King's Bench. Was imprisoned in the Tower where the King or the Bishop of Wincester (diocese of offense) might proceed against him for crimes contrary to the christian faith.
Similar to 1371 case where a charges against a necromancer were dropped- failed to prove that he had harmed or decieved any of the king's people. Implication is that the secular courts could only try cases of sorcery/witchcraft where harm etc had been inflicted. Crime of actually being a witch is heresy and belongs to ecclesiastical court.

1385, London
John Brugges, chaplian, and John Wyghton, tailor, convicted of practicing the "prohibited art of magic" were by the kings command left to the bishop of london "to do what he deems fit for their imprsonment" until they should submit to judgement and satisfy the holy church.

1388, London.
Sir Robert Tresilian, condemned in 1388 by the Merciless Parliament, boasted he "could not die, solong as he had some things about him". strppied by soldiers and found to have amulets depicted astrological signs, a demon's head, several diabolical names. Afterwards hanged without difficulty but a chronicler tells us his throat was cut as a measure of addtional security.

1419, Canterbury.
Chaplain Richard Walker arrested by the Prior of Wincester for sorcery and brought before the convocation of the ArchbishopB of Canterbury on Nov. 8, 1419. Among his paraphenalia: beryl stone, 2 images of yellow wax, 2 books of conjuration and figures. Richard confessed he had tried all manner of sorceries but had never succeeded so was convinced it was all false. Aquitted of heresy because of this confession.

1419, Joan of Navarre
October, King Henry V prosecuted his stepmother Joan for trying to kill him through witchcraft. Set forth in Parliament "on confession given of the king as well as by relation and confession of a friar, John Randolf, of the Order of the Friars Minors, as by other credible evidences" that she had "compassed and imagined the death and destruction of our lord the king in the most horrible manner that one could devise". Publicised throughout the realm, all her goods and chattels confiscated, all her estates, rents, dower etc taken, she is imprisoned in Leeds Castle in custody of Sir John Pelham. Friar confessed his guilt in the matter of "socery and nigromancy", he was imprisoned for life or the king's pleasure. Murdered in 1429 brutally by a mad priest (the Parson of the Tower) smashed his head with a stone, killed him with a hatchet, and hid the body under sand and dung- regarded friar randolf as a servant of the devil.July 1422 Henry wrote a letter asking Joan's dower be restored, he died Sept 1, her petition to the same was granted in 1423.

Complaint of Willaim Lord Botreaux that Sir Ralph Botreaux and William Langkelly had employed 3 persons said to practice "soothsaying, necromancy, and art magic" to "weaken and annihilater, subtley and altogether to destroy by said arts the body of the said William."

1430-2 London.
Apprehension of 2 men and a woman for sorcery by secular gov't. Woman was Margery Jourdemayne (the Witch of Eye, of 1441 Gloucester case), under arrest for "sorcerye" with Friar of John Asshewell of London and John Virley, clericus, and was confined for a time in Winsor Castle. Released in 1432, 2 men for good behavior, Margery on her husband's bond. No record of Margery between 1432 and 1441 except for testimony during Eleanor Cobham's trial that she had employed Margery for a "long tyme". "mulier magica, vocata vulgariter Wyche of Eye juxta villam West-monastarii"

1432-43, Cornwall, Accusation before the Court Chancery.
Prior of Bodmin had ben sued by Richard Flamank, and Henry Hoigges, Gentleman, plantiff's attourney. John Harry, a priest in the prior's service, by "sotilll craftys of enchauntement wycchecraft and sorcerye" plotted to destroy and caused him to break his leg and to suffer such injuries that "he was in despayr of his lyff". This Harry moreover, continually from day to day was practicing "the said sotill craft of enchauntement wycchecraft and sorcerye" and boldly avower it, was notorious in the counrty, and threatened to break Hoigges's neck. Hoigge sought the intervention of the Lord Chancellor because the common law offered him no recourse.
precise legal practice is obscure- who had authority over witchcraft and sorcery cases

1441, London. Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester given a penance, Margery Jourdemain burned, and Roger Whiche (or Bollingbroke) executed by secular authorities for sorcery.
Roger Bollingbroke "a gret and konnyng man in astronomye" and Thomas Suthwelle "a chanon of saint Stephenz chapel wynthynne Westmynstre" were taken in conspiracy of the king's death. Roger by way of "nygromancie", Thomas by saying masses and assenting with Roger in all his works. Sunday 25 July they said such a mass, with Roger arrayed in his customary apparel and with the instrumnets of his craft, including a "chaier ypeynted" with 4 swords at the corners and copper images hanging from the swords in Powlis churchyard, on a high stage above all men's heads, Roger holding a sword in his right hand and a sceptre in his left. Anti-christian intention. Tuesday following this mass, "dame Alienore Cobham, duchesse of Gloucestre"fled by night to the sanctuary of westminster, being suspect of certain article of treason.was examined before the king's council where he said that he performed the necromancy at the bidding of dame Alienore, "to knowe what sholde falle of hir and to what astat she sholde come" Eleanor is called before the king's bishops the following Monday. Roger testified against her and she was commited to the care of Sir John Steward and John Stanley and led to Leeds Castle against her will. A commision was formed consisting of earls Huntingdon, Stafford,and Suffolk and justices of both benches to "enquire of al maner tresons, sorcery, and alle othir thyngiz that myzte in eny wise towche or concerne harmfulli the kyngis persone" Indicted Roger, Thomas and Eleanor as an accessory in the guildhall of London.
"And this same tyme was take a womman callid wicche of Eye, whooz sorcery and wicchecraft the same dame Alienore hadde longe tyme vsid…" Eleanor had forced the duke to marry her through the use of medicine and drinks that the witch made for her. "Wherefore, and also for cause of relaps, the same wicche was brend [burned] in Smythfeld, in the vigily of Saint Simon and Jude."
Saturday 20 october Eleanor appeared before the council of bishops and clerics( see mss for names) and articles were read against her of sorcerie and nygromancie, "wherof someshe denyed and some she grauntid" Next Monday she appeared again and witnesses were brought forward, and she was convicted. Ordered to appear before the AB of Cant on Thursday 9 november for her penance. In the mean time Thomas Suthwelle died in the Tower of London. Appeared before the archbishop, was to perform a penance of going to St. Pauls, Christchurch in London, then to St. Michaels Cornwall, each time to make an offfering of a 1 pound taper, with a "meke and demure countenaunce" , which she did and so meekly that people had "compassion on her". After her penance she was remanded to the care of Sir Thomas Stanley, where she would spend her whole life, having 50 marks a year for her "fundyng and costs". Saturday 27 November, Roger Bollingbroke was found guilty of treson against the king's person by the same council. Sentenced to be hung at the Tower, cut down half alive, his bowels taken out and burned, his head cut off and put on London bridge, and his body quartered and sent to Oxford, Cambridge, York,and Hereford. Roger protested his innocence, but the sentence was carried out.
When instruments of Roger's necromancy were diplayed in court, Eleanor claimed the images of wax, silver and other metals were meant for her to concieve a child by her lord and not to harm the king.
Eye= Eye-next-Westminster.
No record of association between Margery and Roger, but Kittredge speclates that if image magick were being employed that she might have been involved because of examples from other prominent cases at the time from the continent.

1444, London
A man was pilloried "the whyche wrought by a wycckyd spyryte, the whyche was called Obercom, and the maner of his proces and werkyng was wretyn and hanggyd abowte hys necke whenne he was in the pellery"

1446, Durham.
October, "Mariot de Belton, Isabella Brome. Quod est sortilega, et quod qtitur illa arte, et dicit mulieribus solutis, nubere volentibus, quod faciat eas habere quos affectant et desiderant habere. Negat, et habere ad purgandum se cum xij manu. Similiter imponitur Isabellae. Negat, et habere as purgandum cum iiij manu." Translation "sortilega"= "witch". Both were in the habit of telling unmarried women by their arts they could obtain husbands for them. Not associated with each other, both were admitted to compurgation.

1447, Durham.
16 February. "Mariot Jacson. Personaliter. Imponitur sibi quod est incantatrix, et quod utitar arte incantaticis. Et habet ad purgandum se in prox. cum v manu, et restita eat prisinae famae.reprint in Ewen, Witch Hunting

1450, Durham
October. "Agnes Bowmer, nuper de Witton. Non comparuit, et ideo excommunocatur. Notatur super sortilegium. Negat crimen. Item notater super crimen diffamacionis. Negat, et habet terminum as purgandum se in prox."

In the proclaimation for his arrest Jack Cade (rebel who led uprising of 1449-1450) is accused of not only using books of magic but of having "rered up the Divell in the semblance of a black dogge" in his lodging at Dertford.

1451 or 52, Durham.
March "Johan Davison, Alicia Davison. Alicia mater compruit. Imponitur sibi quod utitur arte sortilegii, scilicet utitur arte medical'cum plumbo et pect'et ferro c.

1452, Durham
August. "…Johanna Smythson produxit duas testes, viz. Johannam Barber et Agnetum Patey, quod audierunt ipsem Agnetum publice diffamantem eandem Johannes de sortilegio…"
Johanna appeared with 2 witnesses to prove that Agnes Thompson had publically defamed her for sortilege and had also reported that a certain chaplain was her lover and spent so much for gifts that he was imprisoned for debt.

1457, Lincoln
Thomas Hull of Hertford made his confession and abjured in the parish church in the presence of the Bishop of Lincoln:" that I haue yeven ayde, counsell, help, and fauour vnto oon Thomas Curteys, to the end that he exercised and vsed and heresy"

1465, Norfolk.
2 men tried by royal court for invocation to find treasure.
2 treasure digging sorcerers, John Cans and Robert Hikkes called up a spirit of the air (spiritum aerialem) to disclose the whereabouts of a hoarde. The spirit had by the help a certain cystal showedthem a vast treasure buried in Nonmete Hill. They dug up more than 100 shillings which they kept with no regard for the royal rights in treasure trove. They had promised their demon "the body of a christian man" but they had cheated him by offering up a cock baptised with a chritian name, sacrificed as a burnt offering. Found guilty by a jury impaneled by the king;s escheator for Norfolk.

1466, Ely.
Robert Barker of Babraham was brought before his bishop in the Lady Chapel at Ely. There had been found in his possesion a portentous quantity of apparatus- " a book and a roll of balck art containing characters, circles, exorcisms and conjurations, a hexangonal sheet with strange figures; six metal plates with divers characters engraved; a chart with hexagonal and pentagonal figures and characters, and a gilded wand."alleged that one "John Hope had promised him wealth if he would give him 2 lbs, six shillings and eightpence for the books and instruments and said he had great hopes of certain spirits appearing to him, who would answer his questions, direct him to gold and silver in abundancem and impart to him all secrets." To this end he found a secret place in a close next to William Clerk's house at Saffron Walden. As these things seemed to savour of idolotry and heresy, the bishop commanded Robert Barker to abjure them and enjoined a sa public penance he should on the next 2 Sundays walk round the marketplaces of Cambridge and Ely with bare feet and uncovered head, carrying the said plates and charts round his neck, the wand in his right hand and the books in his left. Aftereardsa ll the book and instruments were to be burned at Cambridge marketplace. Also private penance of fasting on bread and water the whole of every Friday for a year, and say the 7 penitential psalms, with the litany, every Sunday for a year.

January 22. Jacquette de Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford, cleared of slanderous charges of witchcraft brought against her by Thomas Wake. Evidence consisted of a figure of knight made of leaden, broken on the middle and bound with wire, which he asserted she had fashioned. Brought forth John Daunger, parish clerk of Northhamptonshire to testify she had made 2 other such figures, one of King Ed IV and one of Elizabeth Woodville his queen. Clerk refused to testify any such thing and charges dismissed. Scandal was revived in 1483 when Richard III tried to show there had never been any valid marriage between Edward and Elizabeth, that it was result of love magic perpetrated Elizabeth and her mother.

William Hull, Vicar of Cawton, being convicted of sortilege on abundant testimony, was forced to swear on pain of deprivation, that he would resign his cure before Michaelmas, or at least exchange it.

Earl of Mar (Scotland) convicted of treason and accused of using witchcraft against the king. Put to death by having a vein opened.

1480-1515 Southwark
Alice Huntley accused of practicing image-magic "against the law of the church and the king", Alice, wife of John Huntley had, it was said, " used and exercised the feetes of Wychecraft and Sorsery ayenst the lawe of the Chirche and of the kyng" Found in her house according to the petition in the chancery filed by John Knyght, chaplain, one of the searchers, "dyverses mamettes (images) for wychecrafts and enchauntmentez, with ither stuffe beryed and depley hydd under the erthe" Outcome unknown since only informatin appears in Kynght's petition, from witch it appears he had been arrested, probably at Alice's suit, and was then in the Marshalsea.

1480-1515, St. David's
Bishop of St. David's disciplined Thomas Wyriott, Gentleman, and Tanglost for adultry. Wyriott's wife died, said by witchcraft of Tanglost, who is banished by bishop. Tanglost hired a witch at Bristol to work image magic against the prelate, one Margaret Hackett, in a room in Wyriott's house called Paradise chamber. Margaret arrested and confessed, but another witch was hired to complete the job, a third figure of wax formed. Tanglost was then examined for heresy by 4 doctors of divinity who remanded her to the bishop for correction. Wyriott kept her out of bishop's hands by legal chicanery, and at present, according to the bishops bill to the chancery she is conveyed around by Wyriott and his friends that she might continue her sorcery against him. In order to safeguard his life, the bishop petitioned the Lord Chancellor to order Tanglost before the Court of the Chancellor. Tanglost appears and denies all charges, saying they are malicious. Outcome unknown.

1481, London
Johanna Beverly was brought to bar in the Commisary's court of the diocese of London as a sorceress (sortilega) She had induced two witches to win her the love of Robert Stanton and also a another gentleman. These rivals, it was said, fought for her and one had alost killed the other. Her husband lived in so mush terror of them that he couldn't live with her. she was likewise a common harlot and bawd, and was willing to resort to poison when her art failed her.

1481, York
2 seperate cases of incantation before the ecclesiastical court of York; John Parkyn; Agnes Marshall, midwife.

Weird. June 13, in Council, Richard of Gloucester (Richard III) accused Queen Margaret("yonder sorcers, my brother's wife") and Jane Shore of bewitching him. He showed his withered arm, but because everyone there knew it had been like that since his birth, it was ignored. According to another source, JAne Shore was punished and reduced to beggary because of the accusation.

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